Exposition of Genesis 1–11: Genesis 11:5–7

Genesis 11:5–7
But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower that the people had started building.  6 And the LORD said, “If as one people all sharing a common language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be beyond them.  7 Come, let’s go down and confuse their language so they won’t be able to understand each other.”
(NET Bible)

 A communications glitch

Eve and Noah proved the tendency toward sin by isolated humans, and the gathering on the plain of Shinar shows the aggressive will of a combined group to rival God.

Why does rebellion find a home in the human heart? What leads willful humanity to ignore what God wants while grasping for its own flawed goals? How can humanity believe that God will not assert his power in reply?

All commentators identify Genesis 11:5 as the crux of the story. Careful analysis of Genesis 11:1–9 reveals the underlying literary structure, pairing scenes 1 & 5, 2 & 4, and the Introduction & Conclusion:

Verse 1                        Introduction

Verse 2                                    Scene 1: The travels of mankind

Verses 3–4                                    Scene 2: Human plans to build a city and tower

Verse 5                                                            Scene 3: Divine inspection visit

Verses 6–7                                    Scene 4: Divine plans to frustrate mankind

Verse 8                                    Scene 5: Mankind is scattered: building stopped

Verse 9                        Conclusion: What Babel means[1]

Gordon Wenham points out the dark humor of the climax in Genesis 11:5 when he says:

This tower which man thought reached to heaven, God can hardly see! From the height of heaven it seems insignificant, so the Lord must come down to look at it. . . . It is simply a brilliant and dramatic way of expressing the puniness of man’s greatest achievements, when set alongside the creator’s omnipotence.[2]

Genesis 11:5  But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower that the people had started building.

The NET translation explains that the people had only “started building” (Gen. 11:5) the tower and city. That view may be correct, but other translations do not follow this path. Contrary to the NET Bible view, the mockery works best if the tower had previously been completed, which the verbal form normally suggests, and the city is still under construction. In the latter case, the city construction is what stops in Genesis 11:8.

Genesis 11:6  And the LORD said, “If as one people all sharing a common language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be beyond them.”

You will recall that the joining of the “sons of God” with the “daughters of humankind” (Gen. 6:2) resulted in a world filled with violence (Gen. 6:11). Now the people join in a frantic effort to achieve fame without regard to God. Such arrogance, if unchecked, will prove more and more dangerous to the survival of humanity.

The words “nothing they plan to do” represent a verb that is too dangerous for humankind. Wenham says, “Only God may plan without limit. Man is not supposed to emulate his creator in this way.”[3] Humankind has proven from the start that we are not wise enough to plan without limit.

Wenham observes that the language of Genesis 11:6 is very similar to Genesis 3:22. There God took immediate action to expel the man and woman from the garden to prevent them from taking fruit from the tree of life. Once again, dramatic action is imminent! The pattern is building that divine deliberation results in a decision and immediate implementation.

Genesis 11:7  “Come, let’s go down and confuse their language so they won’t be able to understand each other.”

The Lord’s self-exhortation (“Come”) in verse 7 matches the identical form (“Come”) in verse 4 by the people. Humankind is combining to rival God, and God is moving to thwart cooperation among the people without destroying them again.

But Genesis has already taught us that there is a limit to God’s mercy and patience.

Copyright © 2011 by Barry Applewhite. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.



[1] Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1–15, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Word Incorporated, 1987) 235.

[2] Wenham, Genesis 1-15, 240.

[3] Wenham, Genesis 1-15, 241.

Exposition of Genesis 1–11: Genesis 9:24–25

Genesis 9:24–25
When Noah awoke from his drunken stupor he learned what his youngest son had done to him. 25 So he said, “Cursed be Canaan! The lowest of slaves he will be to his brothers.”
(NET Bible)

Sin brings a curse

All actions have consequences. For that reason, the Bible says: “Do not be deceived. God will not be made a fool. For a person will reap what he sows” (Gal. 6:7). But the collateral damage may last for generations and eventually affect a large number of people.

What do we learn from a cautionary tale such as the drunkenness of Noah? Who is affected by the consequences of sin? How long do the consequences last? What can be done to halt the damage done by sin?

Since the Bible does not shrink from telling graphic details when relevant, there is no reason to imagine anything more than an irreverent, dishonoring glance in the words “what his youngest son had done to him” (Gen. 9:24). “However, the phrase ‘his youngest son,’ literally, ‘his little son,’ is a surprising [name] for Ham, since the usual order of names, ‘Shem, Ham, Japheth’ leads to the supposition that Ham was the second in the family.”[1] But we have to believe Noah knows which son is youngest, and there is some evidence that Israelite names were often listed with the shortest first.

Genesis 9:25  So he said, “Cursed be Canaan! The lowest of slaves he will be to his brothers.”

Noah’s first recorded words are “Cursed be Canaan!” Compare this to Adam’s first words: “This one at last is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh . . .” (Gen. 2:23). Adam’s delight with Eve contrasts with Noah’s contempt for Ham. This contrast provides an example of a principle: the farther one gets from creation, the lower humankind sinks into the degradation caused by sin. By the time we arrive at the end of Genesis, the story has moved from humankind as rulers of the earth, under God (Genesis 1), to the Israelites on the verge of slavery in Egypt (Genesis 50).

It is puzzling at first to see that Noah curses Canaan, the son of Ham, rather than Ham himself. Gordon Wenham says, “Here Noah’s youngest son, Ham, sinned against him; therefore it was appropriate that Ham’s youngest son, Canaan, should be punished for his father’s wickedness.”[2]

The word curse means: “hem in with obstacles, render powerless to resist.”[3] One way to understand the word is that it is used as the reverse of the verb “to bless.” But Noah does not have the power to carry out this action, so we may understand his words as either a prophecy or a request. In any event, the curse comes to pass during the conquest of Canaan and the Israelite monarchy.

The last sentence of Genesis 9:25 can be challenging. In Mark 10:44–45, Jesus told the disciples: “And whoever wants to be first among you must be the slave of all. For even the Son of Man did not come to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” Jesus clearly envisioned voluntary, sacrificial service based in love. That is not what we see in the phrase “lowest of slaves” (literally “slave of slaves,” a construction like “holy of holies”). Canaan’s slavery is involuntary and comes as a consequence of the degradation caused by sin.

The ESV Study Bible correctly states, “This passage was wrongly appealed to in past centuries to justify the enslavement of African people, resulting in a grievous abuse, injustice, and inhumanity to people created in the image of God.”[4]

Copyright © 2011 by Barry Applewhite. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.



[1] Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1–15, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Word Incorporated, 1987) 201.

[2] Wenham, Genesis 1-17, 201.

[3] TWOT, ‘arar, to curse, q.v.

[4] ESV Study Bible, notes for Genesis 9:25.

Exposition of Genesis 1–11: Genesis 9:18–20

Genesis 9:18–20
The sons of Noah who came out of the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. (Now Ham was the father of Canaan.)  19 These were the sons of Noah, and from them the whole earth was populated.
20 Noah, a man of the soil, began to plant a vineyard.
(NET Bible)

 The re-development of humanity

Most of us have never given a second thought to where we came from. Perhaps that sentence makes you think of your parents or where you were born. You might even be among the small group of people who have studied their family tree. Mine goes back about 400 years to England,  near Cambridge.

But where did England come from? And how did humanity develop into what we are today? Does our identity stop with our family of origin or does it go much deeper? Why are we oblivious to how things began?

Kenneth Mathews tells us the purpose of Genesis 9:18–19 by saying, “These two verses subtly shift the narrative’s eye from Noah to the sons and their role in the future progression of God’s blessing for humanity.”[1]

Keep in mind that the first five books of the Bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) explain the events between the creation of the world and the preparation for Israel to invade Canaan. These five books explain to the Israelites how they came to be a people and how they were chosen to be the people through whom God would reach the world.

Returning to our verses, we note that Noah and his sons are the new origin point for all humanity alive today. We must also consider that from one of these sons, Shem, will ultimately come Jesus Christ, the savior of the world. Throughout Genesis the story always contains the story of the family that will include the Messiah; the narrative about other lines ends abruptly. Genesis is not merely a history of the world; it is a theological history of the world for the period it covers.

While we are noticing things, let the name “Canaan” resonate in your mind. Before Canaan was a place-name, it was a man’s name, the man who became the ancestor of the Canaanite peoples who play such a big role in biblical history. How did they become so sexually depraved? Stay tuned!

We know that Shem is the ancestor of the Israelites (and Jesus) while Ham is the ancestor of the Canaanites. How this alignment, one people distinguished and one reviled, eventually came about is a story that will soon emerge.

Genesis 9:19 looks ahead to chapter 10 in which the author of Genesis will present the Table of Nations, showing the spread of humankind. For the moment the author merely states that Shem, Ham and Japheth are the three from whom the nations and peoples dispersed. Gordon Wenham says, “The obvious contrast with the small number who emerged from the ark shows that the command to ‘be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth’ (9:1, 7) was indeed carried out by Noah’s descendants.”[2]

Before Adam was created, the narrator observed, “There was no man to cultivate the ground” (Gen. 2:5). When Noah leaves the ark, he is the one who takes up the mantle of Adam in filling that role. He did so by planting a vineyard (Genesis 9:20). Wenham notes, “It is interesting that the vine comes originally from Armenia, which is where the biblical ark landed.”[3]

In this statement about Noah we again have a blank slate: a man and his vineyard. Will Noah improve on the record of Adam? In tomorrow’s post, the author of Genesis will give attention to a particular incident that shapes all following events.

Copyright © 2011 by Barry Applewhite. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.



[1] Kenneth A. Mathews, Genesis 1–11:26, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996) 413.

[2] Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1–15, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Word Incorporated, 1987) 198.

[3] Wenham, Genesis 1–15, 198.

Exposition of Genesis 1–11: Genesis 6:9–10

Genesis 6:9–10
9 This is the account of Noah. Noah was a godly man; he was blameless among his contemporaries. He walked with God.  10 Noah had three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
(NET Bible)

Making a difference for your children

Every society keeps score. In Jesus’ day some coveted the chief seats at the banquets and the synagogue. In our own day, money, fame, and power are popular measures. Only a small percentage “wins” the competition in the world.

Life before God is different; anyone may win. The intelligent, the beautiful, the rich, and the strong have no advantage before God. How then does a man set himself apart? What must one do to obtain a preferred destiny?

Genesis 6:9 begins another major division in the book of Genesis; it formally introduces the account of Noah. Similar divisions have been observed at Genesis 2:4 (the account of the heavens and the earth) and Genesis 5:1 (the account of Adam). We have included Gen. 6:9 with the prior verses because it explains why Noah found favor in the sight of the Lord.

The punctuation of Genesis 6:9 by the NET Bible neatly reveals the divisions in the verse. The summary, “Noah was a godly man,” is explained by the following two clauses. In relation to his contemporaries, Noah was “blameless.” Noah’s relationship with God is described in the same terms that were used of Enoch (5:24): “He walked with God.”

Many translations have “Noah was a righteous man” (ESV, NASB, NIV, NLT, RSV). Gordon Wenham says: “Negatively, a righteous man avoids sin; positively, he does good to his neighbors. In short, it is the most general Hebrew term for good people. . . . Someone called ‘good’ in English would be described as ‘righteous’ in Hebrew.”[1] The NET Bible uses “godly” in place of “righteous” in Genesis 6:9.

The word translated “blameless” by NET and most other translations must be clarified by its context, a fact demonstrated by the NET Bible Notes. “Blameless” means such things as maintaining a proper relationship with God (Gen. 17:1), not participating in idolatrous practices (Josh. 24:14), and not imitating the wicked, proud or deceitful (Prov. 11:5). In our text, Noah did not get involved with the violence and evil of his generation; instead he walked with God.

Noah’s sons are mentioned in Genesis 6:10 to account for their presence in the ark. However, we must consider the question of why they will be allowed to board instead of being destroyed with the rest of humanity. Wenham provides great insight:

Noah’s sons were presumably considered righteous, as they are mentioned before the general corruption of the rest of the world in verses 11–12. Cassuto (2:51) plausibly argues this is Ezekiel’s understanding, for in [Ezek.] 14:14–20 he says that Noah, Daniel, and Job would only deliver themselves by their own righteousness and would not have saved their children.[2]

Parents should note that Noah’s sons are the only sons who escape the flood; godly parents often make the difference between heaven and hell!

 

Copyright © 2011 by Barry Applewhite. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.

 



[1] Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1–15, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Word Incorporated, 1987) 170.

[2] Wenham, Genesis 1-15, 170.

Exposition of Genesis 1–11: Genesis 6:7–8

Genesis 6:7–8
7 So the LORD said, “I will wipe humankind, whom I have created, from the face of the earth– everything from humankind to animals, including creatures that move on the ground and birds of the air, for I regret that I have made them.”  8 But Noah found favor in the sight of the LORD.
(NET Bible)

Extermination and grace

Many people in our contemporary world just cruise along thinking that God will continue to tolerate the deterioration of moral behavior among humanity. Indeed, the Bible warns that in the last days scoffers will say, “Ever since our ancestors died all things have continued as they were from the beginning of creation” (2 Pet. 3:4).

How do we reassess our behavior before God? Does God ever reassess his actions and make a change? How and when might such a thing happen? What can we do to prepare for such a change?

In saying “I will wipe humankind . . . from the face of the earth,” God uses a verb that means “wipe clean” or “wipe out,” depending on the context.[1] It is used for wiping names from records (Exod. 17:14) and for wiping a plate clean (2 Kings 21:13). The ancient method for erasing a name from a scroll is illuminating: “Note that erasures in ancient leather scrolls were made by washing or sponging off the ink rather than blotting. ‘Wipe out’ is therefore more accurate for the idea of expunge.”[2]

Victor Hamilton puts matters bluntly by saying, “God not only erases sins [Isa. 43:25], but he erases sinners—he judges them by drowning them.”[3] Genesis 6:7 makes it clear that all animal life will be included in the judgment on humanity.

We have already learned in a previous post that God saw evil and violence throughout the earth. In response, God felt the pain of “regret,” the same verb N?M (roughly nakam) which we discussed in Genesis 6:6. Recall that this verb can mean both “be pained” and “be relieved of pain.” God feels the pain of regret, but he intends to relieve that pain by destroying those who have caused it through sin.

The duality of the Hebrew verb is not just a technical curiosity; it provides insight into the process of repentance. When our actions bring a sufficient degree of pain, we experience regret. A critical strategy to relieve that pain is to change our minds and take different actions that result in relief of that pain. Humanity acted in sin and brought about a world covered with evil and violence. The right solution would have been to turn away from that sin and turn to God, but that did not happen.

On God’s side of the relationship, he had created the world, humankind and all other life. But the penetration of evil and violence into human behavior, spoiling creation, caused God to feel the pain of regret. Instead of continuing to maintain such a world, God relieves his pain by destroying those who have refused his ways.

Hamilton says, “The fact that the OT affirms that God does repent . . . forces us to make room in our theology for the concepts of both the unchangeability of God and his changeability.”[4] Waltke adds, “People can count on God always to reconsider his original intention to do good or evil according to the human response.”[5]

In this gloomy situation there is just one ray of light: “But Noah found favor in the sight of the Lord” (Gen. 6:8). The word translated “favor” is one which everyone should embrace; it is often translated “grace.” In this case it is the action of the stronger (God) on behalf of the weaker (Noah). The NET Bible Notes for Genesis 6:8 make clear the common basis for such favor:

The favor/kindness is often earned, coming in response to an action or condition (see Gen. 32:5; 39:4; Deut. 24:1; 1 Sam. 25:8; Prov. 3:4; Ruth 2:10). This is the case in Gen. 6:8, where verse 9 gives the basis (Noah’s righteous character) for the divine favor.

The consonants in the Hebrew word for “Noah” are the reverse of the consonants in the Hebrew word for “favor.” In English we might quip that “Noah” is “favor” spelled backwards. In fact, there are many variations on Noah’s name that infuse this entire narrative—apparently a big hint from the author that he would survive.

Apart from God’s favor toward us in Jesus Christ, we would have suffered the same fate as Noah’s contemporaries. In the next post we will see more of Noah’s character before God.

Copyright © 2011 by Barry Applewhite. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.



[1] L. Koehler, W. Baumgartner and J. J. Stamm, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (HALOT), translated and edited under the supervision of M. E. J. Richardson. 5 vols. (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1994-2000) ma?ah, wipe out, q.v.

[2] R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer and Bruce K. Waltke, eds. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, (TWOT) 2 vols. (Chicago: Moody, 1980), ma?ah, wipe out, q.v.

[3] Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1–17, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1990) 275.

[4] Hamilton, Genesis 1–17, 275.

[5] Bruce K. Waltke with Cathi J. Fredricks, Genesis (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2001) 119.

Exposition of Genesis 1–11: Genesis 5:29 and 6:1–2

Genesis 5:29
He named him Noah, saying, “This one will bring us comfort from our labor and from the painful toil of our hands because of the ground that the LORD has cursed.”
(NET Bible)

Descent into greater depravity

Even though we live in an affluent nation, most of us have wished for better days to come. In our best moments we see pockets of hardship and wish they could have a remedy; we observe death and despair and wish things were otherwise.

Wishing for a better world falls far short of working for the kingdom of God. This world is on track to be destroyed, but we still must act as our world’s stewards and show the love of Christ to its needy masses. How might we work for God’s kingdom as our way of making a better world? What can we do to help some survive this world to live with God forever?

Lamech named his son Noah (Gen. 5:29), which may be related to the Hebrew word . . . (NUA?, ‘to rest’); that unfamiliar symbol “?” is pronounced like the final two letters in the Scottish word “loch.” Such word associations are lost on us because they are based on similar sound. When Lamech says, “This one will bring us comfort” (Gen. 5:29a, emphasis added), he uses a verb that shares some of the same letters and sounds of Noah’s name. This verb (? N?M) plays a powerful role in the events that will unfold in Genesis 6.

The summary of what has been said is that Lamech names Noah based on an expectation that Noah will bring comfort. That expectation will turn out to be correct but not in the way that Lamech expects.

Gordon Wenham says:

Chap. 4 [of Genesis] described the growing power of sin from Adam via Cain, culminating in the viciousness of Lamech. It also traced early developments in culture and technology but suggested that all were tainted by the effects of human sin. Chap. 5 on the other hand records God’s blessing of mankind; man multiplies, “fathering sons and daughters.”[1]

If Genesis 4 demonstrates the penetration of sin within humanity by human actions, Genesis 6 opens with a disturbing account of angelic interaction with human women during the pre-flood years.

When you look into ancient literature outside the Bible, you find distorted parallels to what is found in Genesis. Wenham says, “Marriages between men and the gods are a well-known feature of Greek, Egyptian, Ugaritic [a Syrian port, powerful in ancient times], Hurrian [an ancient people in the region of Turkey], and Mesopotamian theology.”[2] In other words, this idea seems strange to us but was well-known in ancient times. The Bible reveals some of the truth about the history.

Genesis 6:2
the sons of God saw that the daughters of humankind were beautiful. Thus they took wives for themselves from any they chose.
(NET Bible) 

In summarizing Genesis 6:1–4, Victor Hamilton says, “Here the divine or angelic world illegitimately impinges on the human world.”[3] The phrase “sons of God” has received a lot of discussion for centuries. The most likely explanation is that the phrase refers to “nonhuman godlike beings such as angels, demons, or spirits.”[4] It certainly refers to such entities in Job 1:6 and Ps. 29:1. Bruce Waltke offers the clarification that: “Angels are called ‘sons of God’ because they belong to the world of [God], although not in a mythological, physical, or genealogical sense.”[5]

In describing the sin of the angelic beings, Waltke says: “The Hebrew reads literally: ‘saw . . . good . . . took.’ Their sin repeats the pattern (‘saw . . . good . . . took’) of the original sin in 3:6.”[6] Whatever women they liked, they took for wives. The women and their parents were culpable for not refusing the pairings. God had declared that all reproduction was “according to its kind” (Gen. 1:24). But in a world where sin was running rampant, God’s limits were ignored.

As we will see in the next post, this is a prescription for disaster!

Copyright © 2011 by Barry Applewhite. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.

[1] Wenham, Genesis 1-15, 125.

[2] Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1–15, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Word Incorporated, 1987) 138.

[3] Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1990) 263.

[4] Wenham, Genesis 1-15, 139.

[5] Bruce K. Waltke with Cathi J. Fredricks, Genesis (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2001) 116, fn 19.

[6] Waltke, Genesis, 117.

Exposition of Genesis 1–11: Genesis 4:15–16

Genesis 4:15–16
15 But the LORD said to him, “All right then, if anyone kills Cain, Cain will be avenged seven times as much.” Then the LORD put a special mark on Cain so that no one who found him would strike him down. 16 So Cain went out from the presence of the LORD and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden.
 (NET Bible)

Cain Finds Mercy

Those who play with fire suffer burns. Cain failed to deal with the sin that threatened to devour his life (Gen. 4:7), and the eventual result was banishment from God’s presence. Why was Cain unable to turn from his sin? John tells us, “Cain . . . was of the evil one and brutally murdered his brother” (1 John 3:12). Victor Hamilton says, “His murder of Abel was an external manifestation of the grip that Satan had on his life.”[1]

How do we underestimate the power of sin? What keeps us from repenting of our sin? What can be done to end the separation of the sinner from God?

“All right then” — the NET Bible’s translation of the opening word from God (Gen. 4:15) — is a bit trendy for a divine statement. God acknowledges the rightness of Cain’s fear of retaliatory death. The meaning of the original word is important in showing God’s attitude toward Cain’s request for relief from his punishment. This request from Cain is the very first cry for rescue from sin’s consequences in human history. If God is willing to listen to the requests of a murderer, then he will listen to ours as well!

God is willing only to give Cain special protection from the very kind of violence that Cain inflicted on Abel. Anyone who kills Cain will be avenged seven times as much as Abel. Wenham is probably right in saying, “Most probably it is a poetic turn of speech meaning full divine retribution.”[2] But there is no protection for Cain from anything short of killing him.

Cain is the original “marked man,” but we do not know the manner of the sign that set him apart from others. Gordon Wenham cleverly observes, “As the clothing given to Adam and Eve after the fall (3:21) served to remind them of their sin and God’s mercy, so does the mark placed on Cain.”[3] You might say that no one who encounters God comes away unchanged. Further, living around God is not safe if you live a life of disobedience.

Like Adam and Eve before him, Cain suffers exclusion from fellowship with the Lord (Gen. 4:16). Cain demonstrates the theme of degradation in his exclusion from humanity. Recall that Cain has been condemned to be a “homeless wanderer on the earth” (Gen. 4:12). The land of Nod is a place whose name is a variant of the word for “wanderer.” Hamilton says, “The wanderer ends up in the land of wandering.”[4] Perhaps the naming of Nod after the punishment of Cain gives us a clue as to how widely people knew that God condemned Cain’s sin.

Copyright © 2011 by Barry Applewhite. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.



[1] Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1990) 244.

[2] Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1–15, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Word Incorporated, 1987) 109.

[3] Wenham, Genesis 1-15, 110.

[4] Hamilton, Genesis 1-17, 235.