Exposition of Genesis 1-11: Genesis 1:28

Genesis 1:28

God blessed them and said to them, Be fruitful and multiply! Fill the earth and subdue it! Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and every creature that moves on the ground.
(NET Bible)

The mission God gave humanity

Humanity had a God-given mission to accomplish from the very beginning. God did not leave the man and woman in doubt about whether there was a God or whether he had orders for those he had made.

What would God say about humanitys management of the ecosystem? What would God say about the extensive extinction of species under our care? What would God say about the attention we devote to our comfort compared to the attention we give the mission he assigned to us so long ago? We are going to find out!

Blessing from God has already occurred in Genesis 1:22, when God blessed the creatures that swarm in the sky, the land and the sea. But there is a major difference between Gods communication in Genesis 1:22 and his communication in Genesis 1:28. In both cases God pronounces a blessing, but only to the man and the woman does he speak –God said . . . to them (Gen. 1:28, emphasis added). In this indirect way we learn that the man and woman had the ability to communicate with God, and they understood what he said.

Another implicit lesson in Genesis 1:28 is that God wanted the man and woman to know what he expected of them. He did not leave them without guidance. You may be thinking, Well, of course! But some who (allegedly) believe in God do not believe as you do. For example, the deists, such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine, held that God created the world but had nothing further to do with it; man was left with only the guidance of reason. Deism is very far from Genesis! Genesis teaches that God communicated with humankind from the start and made clear what he wanted.

So important is this theme of blessing that commentator Gordon Wenham says, Genesis may be described as the story of fulfillment of the divine promises of blessing.[1] So, of what does a blessing consist? Consider the following Word Study.

Word Study bless

The Hebrew verb barak occurs in an intensive form in Gen. 1:28 where NET translates it as God blessed them. The word means: to bless = to endue [i.e., to furnish with a gift] someone with special power.[2] In this verse it appears that the power is to reproduce, to subdue the earth and to rule over the creatures God has made.

In addition to the mandate to reproduce and fill the earth, humanitys rulership is stated even more strongly than it was in Genesis 1:26. Not only does God say to rule over the creation but also to subdue it. The latter verb is the Hebrew verb kabash, which means subjugate[3] [a seldom-heard English word which means to bring under control, conquer[4]]. However, God does not say that the man and woman should rule or subdue other human beings or each other.[5] In addition, animal life was not granted as food until after the flood (Gen. 9:3). A manager of the world has to know these things!

Copyright 2011 by Barry Applewhite. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.


[1] Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1-15, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Word Incorporated, 1987) 24.

[2] L. Koehler, W. Baumgartner and J. J. Stamm, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, translated and edited under the supervision of M. E. J. Richardson. 5 vols. (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1994-2000) barak, bless, q.v.

[3] HALOT, kabash, bring under control, q.v.

[4] subjugate. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. 28 Aug. 2008. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/subjugate>.

[5] Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1990) 139, fn 21.

 

Exposition of Genesis 1–11: Genesis 1:26

Genesis 1:26
Then God said, “Let us make humankind in our image, after our likeness, so they may rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move on the earth.” (NET Bible)

Humans as Merciful Kings under God

Did you ever see a rat with morals or a guppy that could read Shakespeare? No, I thought not! And you have probably never wondered why no such creature exists. Perhaps you should.

Evolutionary naturalism, the prevailing secular viewpoint, cannot explain why we see human beings with moral systems and the ability to read Shakespeare when the rest of animal life on earth has no such ability. You would think a cogent explanation would emerge from the secular model, if it is true.

Does the Bible explain why human life profoundly differs from all other life? What are the implications of this difference? What does this difference demand from us?

Few verses in the Bible offer as much insight into humanity as Genesis 1:26! First, it answers some fundamental questions. A human is like the animals as a biological system, but made to be like God in fundamental ways that animals do not share. So, a huge gap exists between humanity and the other life forms on earth. As we will see, that is not all.

Genesis 1:26 has a startling change in wording that Old Testament scholar Bruce Waltke explains: “The impersonal ‘let there be’ (or its equivalents) of the seven preceding creative acts is replaced by the personal ‘let us.’”[1] Not only has the language shifted, it has moved to plurals. What are we to make of these plural forms?

Many Christian interpreters of past eras have not resisted the tendency to read fully-developed New Testament theology back into Genesis, so they have interpreted the plurals to refer to the Trinity. However, numerous Old Testament scholars who firmly believe in the Trinity do not accept that view. Biblical scholar Gordon Wenham says: “Christians have traditionally seen this verse as [foreshadowing] the Trinity. It is now universally admitted that this was not what the plural meant to the original author.”[2] Waltke notes that, “The primary difficulty with this [Trinity] view is that the other four uses of the plural pronoun with reference to God ([Gen.] 3:22; 11:7; Isa. 6:8) do not seem to refer to the Trinity.”[3]

What, then, do the plurals mean? The NET Bible Notes put matters plainly:

In its ancient Israelite context the plural is most naturally understood as referring to God and his heavenly court (see 1 Kings 22:19–22; Job 1:6–12; 2:1–6; Isa. 6:1–8). (The most well-known members of this court are God’s messengers, or angels. . . .) If this is the case, God invites the heavenly court to participate in the creation of humankind (perhaps in the role of offering praise, see Job 38:7), but he himself is the one who does the actual creative work (v.27).[4]

Next we consider God’s purpose in creating humanity: to “rule” over the created world. Such a purpose gives humanity an astounding importance in carrying out God’s creative purpose. Only Genesis explains the basis for the value and dignity of humanity. Only by comparison to this intended role can we see how terribly sin ruined the greatest product of God’s creative power. Before we consider what the “image of God” might be, we will consider God’s purpose for humanity more closely.

In relation to the powerful verb translated “rule” by the NET Bible, commentator Victor Hamilton offers the following word study:

Verse 26 has begun by stating man’s relationship to the Creator. It now progresses to spelling out man’s relationship to the rest of the created order. He is to exercise dominion (r?dâ) over all other living creatures. . . . The majority [of r?dâ examples] deal either with human relationships (Lev. 25:43, 46, 53 — a master over a hired servant; 1 Kings 5:16; 9:23 — an administrator over his employees; 1 Kings 4:24; Ps. 72:8; 110:2 — a king over his subjects), the rule of one nation over another (Lev. 26:17; Num. 24:19; Neh. 9:28; Ps. 68:27; Isa. 14:2, 6; Ezek. 29:15), or a shepherd’s supervision of his flock (Ezek. 34:4).[5]

This understanding of humanity’s mission under God accounts for the parables of Jesus which teach that we must manage the Lord’s affairs until he returns (Luke 12:35–40; 12:42–48; 19:11–27; Matt. 24:45–51; 25:14–30).

Understanding God’s purpose leaves us in a better position to understand what is meant by the clause “Let us make humankind in our image, after our likeness” (Gen. 1:26a). After surveying the numerous suggestions for the meaning of the image and likeness, Wenham concludes: “None of the suggestions seem entirely satisfactory, though there may be elements of truth in many of them. The strongest case has been made for the view that the divine image makes man God’s vice-regent on earth.”[6]

Hamilton also gives insight by saying: “Gen. 1:26 is simply saying that to be human is to bear the image of God. This understanding emphasizes man as a unity. No part of man, no function of man is subordinated to some other, higher part or activity.”[7]

To inherit such a high calling is daunting to say the least! Waltke sensitively says, “Like God, we are to be merciful kings.”[8]

Copyright © 2011 by Barry Applewhite. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.


[1] Bruce K. Waltke with Cathi J. Fredricks, Genesis (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2001) 64.

[2] Wenham Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1–15, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Word Incorporated, 1987) 27.

[3] Waltke, Genesis, 64.

[4] NET Bible Notes for Genesis 1:26. Waltke supports this view, Genesis, 64; so does Wenham, Genesis 1–15, 28.

[5] Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1990) 137.

[6] Wenham, Genesis 1–15, 31–32.

[7] Hamilton, Genesis 1–17, 137.

[8] Waltke, Genesis, 71.

 

Exposition of Genesis 1–11: Genesis 1:1–3

Genesis 1:1–3
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
2 Now the earth was without shape and empty, and darkness was over the surface of the watery deep, but the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the water.  3 God said, “Let there be light.” And there was light.
(NET Bible)

God Begins Everything

The Bible begins by asserting a fact: to answer those who wonder why anything is here at all, the author of Genesis says God created everything. Old Testament scholar Gordon Wenham quotes another scholar in saying, “’The first subject of Genesis and the Bible is God.’”[1]

Of course, many scientists abhor the idea that Genesis 1:1 presents a definite beginning brought about by God. The agnostic astronomer Robert Jastrow has written:

When a scientist writes about God, his colleagues assume he is either over the hill or going bonkers. . . . However, I am fascinated by the implications in some of the scientific developments of recent years [i.e. the Big Bang]. The essence of these developments is that the Universe had, in some sense, a beginning — that it began at a certain moment in time, and under circumstances that seem to make it impossible — not just now, but ever — to find out what force or forces brought the world into being at that moment. Was it, as the Bible says, “Thine all powerful hand that creates the world out of formless matter”? No scientist can answer that question; we can never tell whether the Prime Mover willed the world into being or the creative agent was one of the forces of physics; for the astronomical evidence proves that the Universe was created 15 billion years ago in a fiery explosion, and in the searing heat of that first moment, all the evidence needed for a scientific study of the cause of the great explosion was melted down and destroyed.[2]

Many scientists earnestly wish scientists like Jastrow would not say such things. His remarks reveal that scientists rely on faith just as Christians do; only the object of faith differs. The event Jastrow describes is the “Big Bang,” the prevailing theory of how the universe began. Some scientists have strongly resisted the Big Bang model of origins because a definite beginning for the universe takes the discussion too far toward the words of Genesis.[3]

But let us turn from the committed skepticism of some scientists to gain a better understanding of the biblical text. The word for “God” in Gen. 1:1, Hebrew elohim, is the most common word for deity and can be used for any god. The author of Genesis intentionally used elohim to let it be known that the creator of the whole universe is the God he describes, not merely some local deity. In part, Genesis counters other religious views of creation common in the ancient east.

Wenham explains: “It is important to appreciate the fact that Hebrew elohim is not simply synonymous with English ‘God.’ Thanks to secularism, God has become for many people little more than an abstract philosophical concept. But the biblical view avoids such abstractions.”[4] While contemporary society tends to marginalize God, the Bible shows that he is central to all that happens.

In saying “the heavens and the earth,” the author of Genesis uses a figure of speech (merism) that means “the universe.” We use the same type of idiom today when we say we refashioned something from top to bottom.

The Hebrew verb b?r?’, (Gen. 1:1) means “God creates,”[5] which makes clear the lexical fact that God is the only subject of this verb in the Old Testament. (Verbs normally take more than one kind of subject.) Ross offers a significant word study of b?r?’, and concludes:

The word b?r?’ is used exclusively for the activity of God in which he fashions something anew. The word can be used for creating something out of nothing, but that idea must come from the context and not from the inherent meaning of this word.[6]

Genesis 1:1 tells us the world did not just happen by chance. At a stroke, Genesis 1:1 sweeps aside atheism, cynicism, pantheism, humanism and naturalism. In their place we have God!

Many scholars have debated the complex details of Gen. 1:1–2, which is not surprising. Old Testament scholar Bruce Waltke presents the most convincing conclusion, held by many, when he says:

The evidence, therefore, seems convincing that verse 1 should be construed as a broad, general declaration of the fact that God created the cosmos, and that the rest of the chapter explicates [expands] this statement. . . . It is concluded, therefore, that the structure of the account of the creation of the cosmos is as follows:

I. Introductory summary statement, 1:1.

II. Situation prior to the creation, 1:2.

III. Narrative of creation, 1:3–31.[7]

The Unformed Earth

The NET Bible Notes describe the state of the earth before the creative activity of God (Gen. 1:2): “What we now know as ‘the earth’ was actually an unfilled mass covered by water and darkness.”[8] In such a world there was nothing to distinguish any point from any other point; it was an empty, lifeless wasteland. Only later would God add an abundance of life to the oceans (Gen. 1:20) — but not yet.

Concerning Genesis 1:2, which he headlines as the “Negative State of Earth before Creation,” Waltke says: “The starting point of the story may be somewhat surprising. There is no word of God creating the planet earth or darkness or the watery chaos. The narrator begins the story with the planet already present, although undifferentiated and unformed.”[9]

In addition to being featureless and empty, the primeval earth was shrouded in “darkness,” waiting for God’s light-bearing word (Gen. 1:3). Most of us live in cities filled with ambient light, even at night. But this darkness (Hebrew, roughly k?shek) was pitch black; when it occurred during the plague of darkness in Pharaoh’s Egypt, the Egyptians had to grope for anything they sought (Exod. 10:21). Their eyes were useless! Ross says, “Darkness throughout the Bible represents evil and death — it is not conducive to life.”[10]

In this featureless gloom over the primeval world, the Spirit of God “was moving” over the surface of the water just as surely as darkness covered the surface of the deep. The Spirit moved in readiness (Gen. 1:2) to breathe life into the creation in a similar way to the Lord God subsequently breathing into Adam’s nostrils “the breath of life” (Gen. 2:7). Nothing comes about in either case apart from the creative activity of God! The key activity in Gen. 1:2 is the “moving” of the Spirit of God; apart from the Spirit’s presence, the earth would have remained lifeless and shrouded in darkness.

The “God said” formula occurs ten times in chapter one (verses 3, 6, 9, 11, 14, 20, 24, 26, 28, 29), and in every case immediate change results. In Gen. 1:3, the author even uses short forms of the verbs to make the sentence as powerfully brief as possible. The Net Bible Notes say these verbs “form a profound wordplay [yehi ’or vayehi ’or; “let there be light and there was light”] to express both the calling into existence and the complete fulfillment of the divine word.”[11]

Wenham points out: “Throughout Scripture the word of God is characteristically both creative and effective. . . . But in this creation narrative these qualities are even more apparent.”[12]

In relation to “light,” Wenham says, “Light is often used metaphorically for life, salvation, the commandments, and the presence of God (Ps. 56:14; Isa. 9:1; Prov. 6:23; Exod. 10:23). It is the antithesis, literally and metaphorically, of k?shek ‘darkness.’”[13] For those who are wondering what the source of light might be, Waltke says, “Since the sun is only later introduced as the immediate cause of light, the chronology of the text emphasizes that God is the ultimate source of light.”[14] In Gen. 1:4, “God saw how beautiful the light was” (Hamilton’s translation).[15]

Copyright © 2011 by Barry Applewhite. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.


[1] Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1-15, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Word Incorporated, 1987) 14, quoting O. Procksch.

[2] Robert Jastrow, God and the Astronomers, Second Edition (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2000) 9–10.

[3] Hugh Ross, “Big Bang Model Refined by Fire,” Mere Creation, ed. William A. Dembski (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1998) 363, 369.

[4] Wenham, Genesis 1–15, 15.

[5] HALOT, bara’, God creates, q.v.

[6] Alan P. Ross, Creation and Blessing (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1988) 728.

[7] Bruce K. Waltke, “The Creation Account in Genesis 1:1–3; Part III,” Bibliotheca Sacra vol. 132, num. 527 (July-September, 1975) 227–228.

[8] NET Bible Notes for Genesis 1:2.

[9] Bruce K. Waltke with Cathi J. Fredricks, Genesis (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2001) 59. Hamilton reaches the same conclusion (Genesis, 117); so does Ross (Creation & Blessing, 104–107).

[10] Ross, Creation & Blessing, 106.

[11] NET Bible Notes for Genesis 1:3.

[12] Wenham, Genesis 1–15, 18.

[13] Wenham, Genesis 1–15, 18.

[14] Waltke, Genesis, 61.

[15] Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1990) 118.