Exposition of Matthew 13:18-23, Parable of the Four Soils – Part 3

Why do people have different responses to Jesus and his message? This question is as relevant today as it was when Jesus brought his light to Galilee.

Matthew 13:18-23

18 Listen then to what the parable of the sower means: 19 When anyone hears the message about the kingdom and does not understand it, the evil one comes and snatches away what was sown in their heart. This is the seed sown along the path. 20 The seed falling on rocky ground refers to someone who hears the word and at once receives it with joy. 21 But since they have no root, they last only a short time. When trouble or persecution comes because of the word, they quickly fall away. 22 The seed falling among the thorns refers to someone who hears the word, but the worries of this life and the deceitfulness of wealth choke the word, making it unfruitful. 23 But the seed falling on good soil refers to someone who hears the word and understands it. This is the one who produces a crop, yielding a hundred, sixty or thirty times what was sown.


In his explanation of the parable, Jesus reveals why his message has received a mixed response. The fault lies not in the message but in the hearts of the listeners. Even the good soil manifests different levels of fruitfulness. The complex parable gives the disciples a framework for understanding what is going on.

The path

Buried in NIVs imperative listen (verse 18) is the Greek personal pronoun for you that leads off the sentence to give it emphasis. The blessedness of the disciples mentioned in verses 1617 is expressed by the fact that they, and not others, are now to receive a plain explanation of the parable.

The first case is the seed sown along the path (verse 19), and Jesus makes clear that the hard path is a metaphor for a heart that hears the word about Gods rule but does not understand. Their failure to hear gives the evil one opportunity to snatch the word from their heart. Thus do many of Jesus contemporaries make the same error as their ancestors and reach the same result. Osborne correctly calls this response studied rejection.[1] NO CROP.

The rocky ground

Though Galilee was very fertile, certain areas had a thin layer of topsoil over a layer of rock. In the story world, some seed falls on this soil (verse 20), and it would seem that a celebration is in order. Not so fast!

Jesus describes the initial reception of the word as receiving it at once with joy. Jesus suggests that initial response, even feeling joy, is not the relevant measure of spiritual success. Indeed, Jesus says this person has no root in himself (NET, ESV), a condition that France interprets as a lack of inner conviction.[2] Osborne explains that the root of a tree or plant is a common ancient metaphor for commitment.[3] The lack of a root makes their response both temporary and reliant on favorable external conditions. When persecution or trouble comes, they stumble away as quickly as they showed initial joy. NO CROP.

Among thorns

Remember that the soil represents the openness or receptivity of the hearers heart to the word (seed) of God being sown. Some hearts already have plants that are thriving when the seed falls among them; those pre-existing plants are thorn bushes. The thorn bushes represent worldly cares and the deceitfulness of wealth. The worldly cares should be familiar to all of us, but expectations from family and society stand high on the list. The deceitfulness of wealth, and the inability of anyone to serve both worldly wealth and God at the same time show how the thorns choke the word. NO CROP.

The good soil

Jesus says the good soil represents those who hear the word and understand it. For us to understand what Jesus means, we must critique how modern people think. Hear in our culture means something like sitting and listening to a sermon, and then going home unchanged. Understand in our culture means grasping something conceptually. Today someone may say that Beijing is the capital of China. I am informed of concepts, but my behavior is unchanged. If I use the information to fly to Beijing as a man who belongs to Jesus, then I am hearing and understanding in the sense Jesus means.

How would a Christian who knows you well, describe your relationship to Jesus? Would it be more about being satisfied with knowing sound doctrine, or would they comment about how your faith translates in love and care shown to others?

If no crop results from Jesus word that has fallen into the soil of my heart, then no hearing and understanding have taken place. But as my behavior and actions put Jesus words into practice, then we have: A CROP! And that crop shows a level of production proportional to my demonstrated devotion to Jesus.

Copyright 2017 Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from materials created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.

[1] Grant R. Osborne, Matthew, Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010)513.

[2] R. T. France, The Gospel of Matthew, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2007)520.

[3] Osborne, Matthew, 514.

Exposition of Matthew 13:10-17, Parable of the Four Soils – Part 2

If you hear ten sermons on the Parable of the Four Soils, chances are that every one of them will mostly ignore the center section (verses 10-17) and press on toward the interpretation Jesus gives later (verses 18-23). We do better to pay attention to the way Jesus presented the parable. Though the center section is difficult, it will reward our attention.

Perhaps your best introduction to this section would be to consider your own level of spiritual interest. The fact that you are reading this blogis a mark in your favor.

Matthew 13:10-17

10 The disciples came to him and asked, Why do you speak to the people in parables?

11 He replied, Because the knowledge of the secrets of the kingdom of heaven has been given to you, but not to them. 12 Whoever has will be given more, and they will have an abundance. Whoever does not have, even what they have will be taken from them. 13 This is why I speak to them in parables:

Though seeing, they do not see; though hearing, they do not hear or understand.

14 In them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah: You will be ever hearing but never understanding; you will be ever seeing but never perceiving.

15 For this peoples heart has become calloused; they hardly hear with their ears, and they have closed their eyes.

Otherwise they might see with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their hearts and turn, and I would heal them.

16 But blessed are your eyes because they see, and your ears because they hear. 17 For truly I tell you, many prophets and righteous people longed to see what you see but did not see it, and to hear what you hear but did not hear it.


The disciples immediately sense the difference in Jesus teaching because he is using parables (verse 10). Here is the crucial difference between Jesus disciples and others: when puzzled, the disciples come to Jesus to seek further information. Of course, their question might also express mild criticism of this course change.

Matthew 13:11 He replied, You have been given the opportunity to know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven, but they have not. (NET, emphasis added)

The NET Bible does a better job with verse 11, so I have shown it above. Though you cannot tell in NETs translation he replied (verse 13), Jesus signals in Greek that his words are both important and surprising.[1] Note the bold-face words: Jesus is making a powerful contrast between his disciples (you) and others (they). You can see that the pronoun you, appears at the start of the sentence for emphasis. Jesus is willing to explain the secrets of Gods kingship to the disciples, but he is not revealing these secrets to those who are uninterested.

If that interpretation sounds unlikely, look at verse 12. Those who have a relationship to Jesus will get an increasing amount of understanding, to the point of abundance. Those lacking a relationship to Jesus will get nothing and fall ever farther away. Once again, in verse 13, Jesus uses Greek words that signal introduction of a key idea: the national response against Jesus fulfills what Isaiah the prophet had said long ago (verses 13b-14).[2] When plain teaching authenticated by miracles does not penetrate someones heart, their heart is hardened against change. Isaiah says that they will not repent.

When never means maybe

Before I discuss verse 14b, I want to explain why finding the right interpretation matters to you. Jesus was speaking about how Jews resisting the knowledge of God gradually degraded their ability to respond to God at all. The principles he lays out also apply to people we know who have heard about Jesus but are holding him at arms length or rejecting him entirely. Do those people have any chance at all of responding later, or has their opportunity for eternal life been lost forever?

A closer look

Matthew 13:14b (NIV) You will be ever hearing but never understanding; you will be ever seeing but never perceiving.

Matthew 13:14b (NET) You will listen carefully yet will never understand, you will look closely yet will never comprehend.

It is not uncommon for translation disagreements to occur in spots where the New Testament quotes (or paraphrases) the Old Testament. Matthew 13:14b is such a place, because Jesus quotes Isaiah 6:9-10. NIV’s translation sounds beautiful with its rhyming combination ever … never. This combination is an adverbial idea stressing time. But NET’s translation shows that other choices are possible, even preferable. NET also uses an adverbial idea the right approach to this grammatical knot but the words carefully and closely are adverbs of intensification, not time.

We are not finished with verse 14b, until we deal with the translation never. New Testament scholar Craig Blomberg is not fond of never as an English translation of the Greek phrase: Ever and never are somewhat misleading translations in light of Isa. 6:13, which looks forward to a future restoration of at least some of those who are now obdurate [hardened].[3] Blomberg prefers this translation of verse 14b: You will surely hear but not understand; you will surely see but not perceive. This is a generalization, and some specific exceptions may occur. How do I know exceptions exist? Because, as Blomberg noted, God declares that a remnant of believing Jews will always remain. Snodgrass explains that having ears to hear is one mark of the remnant in the time Jesus is teaching.[4]

Blomberg certainly put his finger on the right issue. A certain two-word phrase in Matthews Greek text means one of the following: never, not at all, by no means, or certainly not. If Jesus meant never in its normal English sense as NIV believes than no descendant of Abraham from that moment until the cross would put their faith in him, including his mother and brothers. We know that is not true.

So, we have two alternatives: 1) try one of the other meanings for the two-word phrase, or 2) take the phrase in a figurative sense rather than a literal one. Snodgrass prefers the figurative sense. He argues that the harsh language if Isaiah 6:9-10 was intended to shock the Israelites so that some would hear and follow. Jesus used this Isaiah passage for the same purpose, not literally but forcefully, to provoke the people and bring about both hearing and obedience.[5]

At the end of our interpretive effort, certain facts are decisive: 1) In spite of the harsh language of Isaiah 6:9-10, Jesus is still trying to reach the Jews, and 2) The set of four similitudes includes the good soil that receives the seed and produces a crop. So, the situation of those listening to Jesus is dire, but not hopeless.

A time like no other

Our Lord said some things that Christians ignore; perhaps they have been poorly briefed. The period of time that Jesus spent in the physical presence of his disciples was a time of unparalleled blessing (verses 16-17). Who says so? Jesus. That time was special!

We, on the other hand, are in a similar position to many prophets and righteous people (verse 17) in that we do not have the amazing experience that the first disciples had. Of course, our position is wonderfully enriched by the presence of the Holy Spirit within every believer and the knowledge of Jesus resurrection.

What is sometimes harder for us is to get is that not every word in the Gospels is addressed to us, even though we can still gain insight from it. Some of what Jesus said was meant to be applied on the spot, but not later. The statement that the disciples were benefactors of a special blessing is such a case.

Copyright 2017 Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from materials created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.

[1] Steven E. Runge, Discourse Grammar of the Greek New Testament: A Practical Introduction for Teaching and Exegesis (Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 2010), 145, explaining redundant quotative frames.

[2] Runge, Discourse Grammar, 49, on how certain Greek phrases introduce key ideas.

[3] Craig L. Blomberg, Matthew, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1992), 217.

[4] Klyne Snodgrass, Stories with Intent (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2008)161.

[5] Snodgrass, Stories with Intent, 160-161.

Exposition of Matthew 13:1-9, Parable of the Four Soils – Part 1

Probably the greatest obstacle you will face in going deeper on the parable of the four soils is that what you already know is likely wrong. Parables conceal, not reveal! France says that modern readers think of parables as helpful illustrative stories, so they miss the point that parables mean nothing until they have been explained.

Keep in mind that the things Jesus teaches in this section come just after being accused by the Jewish religious leaders of doing his mighty deeds by Satans power. On that same day, these events unfold.

Matthew 13:1-9

1 That same day Jesus went out of the house and sat by the lake. 2 Such large crowds gathered around him that he got into a boat and sat in it, while all the people stood on the shore. 3 Then he told them many things in parables, saying: A farmer went out to sow his seed. 4 As he was scattering the seed, some fell along the path, and the birds came and ate it up. 5 Some fell on rocky places, where it did not have much soil. It sprang up quickly, because the soil was shallow. 6 But when the sun came up, the plants were scorched, and they withered because they had no root. 7 Other seed fell among thorns, which grew up and choked the plants. 8 Still other seed fell on good soil, where it produced a crop a hundred, sixty or thirty times what was sown. 9 Whoever has ears, let them hear.


In observing the Parable of the Four Soils, you must learn to carefully consider the context. You would be surprised how many questions can be answered by simply reading the surrounding setting of a verse or parable. And, if you learn to do this consistently, you will find that various Christian authors sometimes try to support their views by giving a Bible reference whose context tells you otherwise. This may not be intentional; they may simply be restating what they have read elsewhere.

In Matthew 11-12, we saw a lot of opposition to Jesus, and in Matthew 13 we find numerous parables, which mention the kingdom of heaven a phrase referring to Gods kingship in verses 11, 24, 31, 33, 44, 45, 47 and 52. It is reasonable to think that the Parable of the Four Soils deals in some way with both Gods kingship (as expressed in Jesus) and the opposition to that kingship. France explains that chapter 13 shows the disciples how Gods kingship can be resisted by his own people and sets the disciples expectations about the reception their witness will receive.[1] But it does so using parables, a form that is not self-explanatory.

The Parable of the Four Soils is clearly important. Matthew, Mark and Luke use it as their first substantive parable, and it is one of only two parables that Jesus explains in detail.[2] The reason for this primacy will unfold when I interpret the parable, but, for now, I will simply say that unless you obey this parable, none of the others will matter!

Kline Snodgrass prefers to say that this parable is a fourfold [resemblance] because it presents four instances of sowing only one successful followed by an appeal for hearing.[3] Such parallels were common in the ancient world. As France observes, the way Jesus structures the parable forces the reader to think about obstacles to growth and not just about the happy ending.[4]

Interpreting the Parable: Part 1

It is hard to imagine what thoughts might have been tumbling in Jesus mind as he left the house where so much had happened and walked to the lakeside where he sat down (verse 1). He had to know that a large crowd would follow him there. Because Jesus entered and sat down in a boat (very likely with his disciples) many more people would be able to hear what he said (verse 2). Perhaps they expected him to teach as he had before, not knowing that those days were done.

You may have noticed the repetition of the phrase went out in verses 1 and 3. Jesus uses a particular Greek verb (exerchomai) to picture the farmer going out to spread seed on his land (verse 3). In writing his Gospel, Matthew chose that same verb to describe Jesus departure from the house to go down by the lake. Matthew is probably trying to give a subtle hint that Jesus is the farmer sowing seed. Since Jesus separates his interpretation of the parable from its initial expression, I will do the same, but taking note of parallel language is part of your task in interpreting the Bible. Fortunately, the NIV translators preserved the parallel language in their English translation. That does not always happen!

By focusing on four different types of soil, the parable helps us see how the farmer was thinking about his crops yield. Even within the single type of soil actually producing a crop, the variation in yield was readily apparent. Jesus audience certainly knew about such different outcomes, but, although they might have some guesses, they did not know what Jesus was trying to say about these differences. Parables conceal!

Was it possible for Jesus opponents to use these words against him? If so, how? My answer is no, but, as I tell my wife, I was wrong once.(smile)

After declaring the complex parable, Jesus gave a terse command (verse 9). I am fond of the NET Bibles translation because it captures the force of Jesus words: The one who has ears had better listen!

Copyright 2017 Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from materials created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.

[1] R. T. France, The Gospel of Matthew, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2007)499.

[2] Klyne Snodgrass, Stories with Intent (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2008)145.

[3] Snodgrass, Stories with Intent, 146.

[4] France, Matthew, 504.