[Dan. 5:31 and Darius the Mede took over the kingdom, at the age of sixty-two.]*
1 It pleased Darius to appoint 120 satraps to rule throughout the kingdom, 2 with three administrators over them, one of whom was Daniel. The satraps were made accountable to them so that the king might not suffer loss. 3 Now Daniel so distinguished himself among the administrators and the satraps by his exceptional qualities that the king planned to set him over the whole kingdom. 4 At this, the administrators and the satraps tried to find grounds for charges against Daniel in his conduct of government affairs, but they were unable to do so. They could find no corruption in him, because he was trustworthy and neither corrupt nor negligent. 5 Finally these men said, We will never find any basis for charges against this man Daniel unless it has something to do with the law of his God.
6 So these administrators and satraps went as a group to the king and said: May King Darius live forever! 7 The royal administrators, prefects, satraps, advisers and governors have all agreed that the king should issue an edict and enforce the decree that anyone who prays to any god or human being during the next thirty days, except to you, Your Majesty, shall be thrown into the lions den. 8 Now, Your Majesty, issue the decree and put it in writing so that it cannot be altered in accordance with the law of the Medes and Persians, which cannot be repealed. 9 So King Darius put the decree in writing.
* Ancient Jewish versions begin chapter 6 with what English versions label as verse 5:31.
My previous post adopted the view that Darius the Mede is also known as Cyrus the Great (600530 B.C.), a view advanced by Miller and others. A great deal of ink has rightly been spilled on that subject by scholars, but the details have little bearing on Daniels message; Miller presents other views in some detail.
From a human viewpoint, it is true that Darius took over the [Babylonian] kingdom (verse 5:31, NIV and NLT), but Daniel has stressed repeatedly that God gives the kingdoms of men to whomever he wishes (Dan. 4:32). That being the repeated message of Daniel, it is better to say that Darius received the [Babylonian] kingdom (ESV, HCSB, CEB, NASB). This difference may seem trivial, but it is Daniels viewpoint.
The word satrap (verse 1) sounds odd to us, but it is an Old Persian word that means protector of the empire. Cyruss kingdom was the largest the world had yet seen, and it was vital to have men who could act with almost unlimited power without waiting months for messages to get to Cyrus and back. Over the satraps, Cyrus established three high officials who could hold the satraps accountable. Any satrap who hoped to enrich himself at the kings expense would regard these officials as a dangerous obstacle. Daniel was one of the three high officials (verse 2), and, because he repeatedly demonstrated that he had an extraordinary spirit (verse 3, NET), the king intended to make Daniel supreme.
The other two high officials and a few of the satraps did not want to see Daniel promoted. Because he was diligent, incorruptible and trustworthy, their only strategy to eliminate him was to create a conflict between Daniels loyalty to Yahweh and his duty to uphold the civil law (verses 4-5). They conspired to keep their plan secret from Daniel and — as a group — deceived Darius by saying that all the high officials and satraps supported their proposal.
The proposal of the conspirators had several elements: (1) strictly enforceable, (2) applicable to all, (3) irrevocable during its 30-day duration, and (4) requiring execution for violation. The key provision of their proposal is often misunderstood. Miller explains: Darius was to be the only priestly mediator during this period. In his role as mediator, prayers to the gods were to be offered through him rather than the priests. Darius was not approving worship of himself, as is sometimes assumed, but rather taking a temporary role something like that of a high priest, who intercedes with the gods on behalf of his subjects. Collins says, There is no indication that [Persian] kings had even the slightest tendency toward self-deification.
Darius was deceived by the conspirators and issued the binding decree in written form (verse 9). From that moment, Daniel had a date with the lions.
Copyright 2014 Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from materials created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.
 Miller, Daniel, 177.
 Miller, Daniel, 180.
 Miller, Daniel, 181, footnote 50, quoting J.H. Walton.