Perhaps you have heard the advice that if you don’t have a good, sound argument, then find an argument that sounds good. Anyone interested in American politics sees that ploy in use all the time. But you can find people in the Gospels trying the very same tactic on Jesus.
The Jewish religious leaders, led by the scribes and Pharisees, had a problem on their hands. They had given a name to their pain, and that name was Jesus. We already know they were working on a plot to kill him (Matthew 12:14), but they had to be careful about his death to avoid any blame.
Might there be another way to stop Jesus?
22 Then they brought him a demon-possessed man who was blind and mute, and Jesus healed him, so that he could both talk and see. 23 All the people were astonished and said, Could this be the Son of David?
24 But when the Pharisees heard this, they said, It is only by Beelzebul, the prince of demons, that this fellow drives out demons.
25 Jesus knew their thoughts and said to them, Every kingdom divided against itself will be ruined, and every city or household divided against itself will not stand. 26 If Satan drives out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then can his kingdom stand? 27 And if I drive out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your people drive them out? So then, they will be your judges. 28 But if it is by the Spirit of God that I drive out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.
When you read this, the Dallas Cowboys will be preparing for the playoffs. As every football fan knows, when you have a powerful opponent, it is vital to scout them thoroughly and try to find some way to attack them. The Pharisees and their allies had been scouting Jesus from the beginning, but his abundant miracles, both healings and exorcisms, gave their efforts special urgency.
It is my opinion that the events we are looking into today may have been an ambush. The Pharisees knew Jesus would perform an exorcism, if the need arose, and they had prepared an argument that they hoped would place him in such danger that his life could be taken according to the law. Practicing magic or sorcery was a capital offense under Jewish religious law, so one promising line of attack was to convince the public that Jesus was a sorcerer. Such a charge would put him on the wrong side of Roman law as well. As in the trial and crucifixion of Jesus, Roman consent was necessary to execute anyone, but an aroused mob needs no consent. While this is speculation on my part, it fits the circumstances as we know them.
Matthew reports the miracle with remarkably few words (verse 22). Yet the few words present a man in abject misery, having an ongoing experience of blindness and inability to speak due to a demonic presence within him. This man is an archetype for a prisoner of Satan. Though the details are not stated, we can infer that Jesus cast out the demon, and muted it as well, because Mark informs us that, upon seeing Jesus, the unclean spirits would cry out, You are the Son of God (Mark 3:11). Jesus freed this man so he could both see and speak (Matthew 12:22).
Yet the words Matthew reports are those of the astonished witnesses: Could this be the Son of David? (verse 23). France notes that this is the first time in Matthew’s Gospel a crowd has used explicit messianic language about Jesus. The significance of the crowds reaction is not lost on the Pharisees! They immediately respond with their prepared charge: It is only by Beelzebul, the prince of demons, that this fellow drives out demons (verse 24). Beelzebul seems to have been a popular nickname for Satan, a name chosen for the crowds ears.
In making his first counterargument (verses 25-26), Jesus too relies on what is common knowledge; a demon king attacking his own forces would divide his own kingdom and lead to its fall. The people knew all about how internal divisions had torn Herod’s kingdom into many pieces after his death (see the map in the introduction). So, it made no sense for Satan to attack himself by empowering Jesus exorcisms.
How does unity among Christians play a vital role in accomplishing Jesus work among us and in our community? What about the effect of disunity?
Jesus makes his second counterargument in verse 27; his opponents have no right to criticize his exorcisms while approving exorcisms done by their own disciples. Do not fail to notice verse 27b: So then, they will be your judges. In the final judgment, when the deeds of every person are evaluated by God, the disciples of the Pharisees will testify that they performed exorcisms on orders of their masters, bringing them shame for criticizing Jesus.
The idea that these false charges against Jesus were orchestrated finds support in Jewish sources making the same charge of sorcery or magic against Christians working miracles well into the second century after Christ came. One such Jewish source talks about an early second-century rabbi who, when near death, tried to get a second rabbi to let a Christian enter and pray for him, but he died before he could finish the argument. We all want miracles!
The Arrival of God’s Promised Rule
Matthew 12:28But if it is by the Spirit of God that I drive out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.
My guess is that the Pharisees were not expecting Jesus to meet their prepared charge with a strong defense. Worse for them, Jesus took the offensive (verse 28) with an effective, though indirect, claim to cast out demons by the Spirit of God. His audience knows what he is claiming, but his wording offers no effective way to charge him with anything.
This skirmish between Jesus and the Pharisees has the appearance of a strictly earthly struggle for religious control of Galilee, but Jesus is revealing developments in a much larger conflict. Jesus is ripping away parts of Satan’s kingdom and making them part of his own. He pulls back the concealing drape in verse 28.
The if-statement in verse 28 has a form meaning that it must be taken as true for the sake of argument. As a matter of fact, we know the if-statement to be true. Jesus does drive out demons by the Spirit of God. That means the matching conclusion is true as well: then the kingdom of God has come upon you (verse 28b). Jesus is warning his opponents that his decisive victory over the demonic spirits by the Spirit of God is a clear sign that God’s rule has come through him. To oppose Jesus is to oppose God.
What are the implications of such an effortless victory by Jesus over Satan? What does this victory say about Jesus ability to help you defeat spiritual enemies in your own life?
The person who best develops the meaning of the phrase the kingdom of God has come upon you (verse 28) is Darrell Bock of Dallas Theological Seminary when he explains Luke 11:20. Bock points out that Jesus demonstration of saving authority demands a decision: Jesus is perceived as ruling over God’s many salvation benefits. He has the authority to distribute them to anyone who responds to his message. Bock points out that the presence of Jesus rule within believers, through the indwelling Holy Spirit, looks forward to his coming physical rule over the earth.
Have you made a decision about the reign of Jesus over your life? If not, what is standing in your way?
Copyright 2017 Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from materials created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.
Craig S. Keener, A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew(Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1999) 361.
 R. T. France, The Gospel of Matthew, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2007)477.
If you look around, it is not hard to find people who are quietly trying to make their way through life. They don’t get on TV or find themselves as the subject of a best-selling book. Perhaps you are one of those quiet, diligent people.
On the other hand, we also have those seeking to be the center of attention, making frequent selfies, posting their smallest movements on Facebook and otherwise wanting to be noticed and highly valued by others.
Though the world of the first century was very different from ours, these two types of people were still around. The quiet people trying to get through their lives were among those coming in throngs to find Jesus and get help. The more self-concerned and self-assertive group was led by the Pharisees and scribes in their constant effort to be seen as godly men helping — or making! — others be godly too, at least according to their rules for godliness.
Which groups did Jesus identify with? What kind of man was he?
15 Aware of this, Jesus withdrew from that place. A large crowd followed him, and he healed all who were ill. 16 He warned them not to tell others about him. 17 This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet Isaiah:
18 Here is my servant whom I have chosen, the one I love, in whom I delight; I will put my Spirit on him, and he will proclaim justice to the nations. 19 He will not quarrel or cry out; no one will hear his voice in the streets. 20 A bruised reed he will not break, and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out, till he has brought justice through to victory. 21 In his name the nations will put their hope.
What did Jesus tell the people he healed?
As we have seen, Jesus declared that it was lawful to do good on the Sabbath and did just that by healing a man with a withered hand (Matthew 12:13). What Jesus considered lawful, the Pharisees considered awful — I couldn’t resist — so they began plotting to kill him (Matthew 12:14). These were the facts occupying Jesus’ mind as we begin verse 15.
Osborne provides a sound overview of verses 15-21 by saying, As the Pharisees plot violence against the Son of God, Jesus takes the lowly path, serving God and humankind. This contrast is a key point of the section.
In saying that Jesus “withdrew from that place,” Matthew uses a Greek verb (anachoreo) that indicates a retreat to safety, something Jesus has already done several times to avoid direct conflict with his opponents. The day will come (in Jerusalem) when he will confront the Pharisees and put them to shame, but now such action would misdirect his mission. It would lead to premature trial and crucifixion, if not his outright murder.
Sometimes withdrawal from conflict can better serve God's purposes. For example, maintaining unity within a group of believers might require avoidance of conflict. What similar examples occur to you?
Instead of dealing with the Pharisees and their endless plotting, Jesus spent his hours healing illnesses among the large crowd that followed him (verse 15b). He commanded them to be silent about their healing (verse 16) so that no further trouble might erupt; the Pharisees were right on the point of behaving with violence. Matthew shows us that Jesus, in taking this peaceful, caring approach, was fulfilling the role of God’s special servant, as revealed by the prophet Isaiah many centuries earlier (verse 17).
By quoting this famous passage from Isaiah, Matthew implies a question: who is behaving like the servant of Yahweh? In theory, there might be two alternatives: either the Pharisees or Jesus. The Pharisees certainly see themselves as God’s servant and want honor from others as well. Matthew has shown us that Jesus is the Messiah, and the Messiah had long been considered a prime candidate to fulfill Isaiah’s prophecy. So, Matthew is obviously presenting Jesus as the fulfillment of this role. To demonstrate that Matthew is right, we need to examine the prophecy itself.
Matthew 12:18 (“Here is my servant whom I have chosen, the one I love, in whom I delight; I will put my Spirit on him, and he will proclaim justice to the nations”) corresponds to Isaiah 42:1. This part is easy because in Matthew 3:17, at Jesus baptism by John, the Holy Spirit came upon Jesus, and the Father declared him to be his Son in whom he was well pleased. While we have not yet had many developments about the nations, the healing of the Roman centurion’s servant was accomplished along with a declaration from Jesus that many would come from the east and the west to take the place of the Jews who were disloyal to God (Matthew 8:513). Obviously, Jesus has satisfied this prophecy, while the self-declared defenders of the faith, the Pharisees, have not.
How does replacing disloyal Jews with loyal Gentiles demonstrate proclaiming justice to the nations?
Matthew 12:19 (“He will not quarrel or cry out; no one will hear his voice in the streets”) corresponds to Isaiah 42:2. It is easy to show that the Pharisees have been regularly initiating disputes with Jesus and his disciples. Matthew 9:1-15 has the dispute over Jesus healing and forgiving sins as well as the controversy over his eating with tax collectors and sinners. We also recall Jesus teaching on the mountain to beware those who pray while standing in synagogues and on street corners to be seen by others (Matthew 6:5), a clear reference to the Pharisees.
Matthew 12:20 (“A bruised reed he will not break, and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out, till he has brought justice through to victory”) matches Isaiah 42:3. France gives us great clarity here. A cracked or bent reed could no longer serve its intended purpose; the same was true of a barely smoldering lamp wick. Many would throw these broken or spent things away without a thought. But the reed and the wick are metaphors for broken and hurting people, the very ones Jesus was busy healing and restoring to a meaningful life.
This image of brokenness represents so many of us. How did Jesus rescue you from a desperate life, going nowhere? If that is not your story, how has the great healer improved your life?
The final clause of verse 20 (“till he has brought justice through to victory”) needs explanation. Jesus will continue to lift up those broken people seeking him until the day when final justice is achieved through his victory over sin, death and Satan. It is easy to understand why the nations will put their hope in Jesus (verse 21) because no one else can bring about justice!
In short, we have the Pharisees busy plotting murder while Jesus is busy healing and caring for deeply hurting people. The contrast could hardly be greater, and it is obvious who is fulfilling Isaiah 42:3 (Matthew 12:20).
Copyright 2016 Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from materials created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.
 Grant R. Osborne, Matthew, Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010)462.
 R. T. France, The Gospel of Matthew, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2007)472-73.
It would be hard to improve on the words of Mark Lilla: “To most humans, curiosity about higher things comes naturally, its indifference to them that must be learned.”
25 At that time Jesus said, I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and learned, and revealed them to little children. 26 Yes, Father, for this is what you were pleased to do.
27 All things have been committed to me by my Father. No one knows the Son except the Father, and no one knows the Father except the Son and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal him.
What does this text say about what is hidden and what is revealed?
At times Bible translators can be too smart for their own good! You would not think that the simple words Jesus said (verse 25) could be tricky, but we will look a little closer. Actually, the Greek here says something like: “Jesus answered and said” (NASB). But most English versions have collapsed the two verbs into just one, arguing that this was required by English style. Not so fast!
Recent research, made practical by use of computers and biblical databases, indicates that Bible passages in the Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) using the “answered and said” pattern (in Greek, of course) turn out to be important statements.
So, what vital truth is Jesus revealing to us in the wake of this importance-marker in verse 25? These verses are difficult to unravel because we have to make some educated guesses about the meaning of these things: the wise and learned and little children. So, we had best get to it.
Osborne offers us a useful summary when he says, “God reveals his truths only to those who open themselves up to him with a childlike simplicity and receptivity, not to those who in their pride and self-sufficiency feel no need for it.” By this reading, the little children (verse 25) are those who have responded to Jesus and accepted who his miracles prove him to be. This group of God-seekers occasionally includes centurions (Matthew 8:59) and synagogue leaders (Matthew 9:18), but more often includes tax collectors and sinners (Matthew 11:19).
We have also seen that the religious leadership, led by the scribes and Pharisees, are lining up to oppose Jesus, and they seem to have convinced the bulk of the population in Capernaum, Bethsaida and Chorazin to follow their lead. Jesus has already denounced that entire group and made it clear that they are on the broad road that leads to destruction. So, this group comprises the wise and the learned from whom the things revealed in and through Jesus are hidden (verse 25).
What cross-pressures exist in our own culture that try to convince us not to value Jesus or, indeed, to value any honor paid to God?
France ably points out that Jesus’ disciples, diverse as they are, represent an alternate community that the world does not value. This alternate community has repented and is trying to learn how to live according to the humble, compassionate, God-honoring values that Jesus has taught. It is they alone who can know the truth about God and his Son.
Note carefully that hiding the truth from the wise and learned and revealing it to the little children happens according to what is pleasing to the Father. France clarifies this division when he says, “The basis of this division is not an arbitrary selection, but the fundamental principle of divine revelation, that it comes to those who are open to it, but finds no response with those who think they know better.”
There is no ground here for any of the anti-intellectualism that has sometimes plagued Christianity in America. Openness to the truth is not a function of education or social class. A good example of what Jesus is talking about occurs when he is interrogated by Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea:
Jesus: “The reason I was born and came into the world is to testify to the truth. Everyone on the side of truth listens to me” (John 18:37).
Pilate: “What is truth?” (John 18:38).
Like many in our society today, Pilate had no confidence that truth could be had anywhere! He left to address the crowd before Jesus could answer.
Where do people in our culture turn to find the truth? If they become frustrated in the search, to what alternatives do they turn?
When verse 27 speaks of all things being committed to Jesus by the Father, it must certainly include what Jesus has taught about God’s reign, the authority to work miracles that he has demonstrated, and (in this verse) it includes revealing the Father to those whom the Son deems receptive. It is also true that the Father has committed to the Son “all authority in heaven and earth” (Matthew 28:18), as revealed in the Great Commission.
Of special interest is the final clause of verse 27: “No one knows the Father except the Son and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal him.” This is an astounding thing for anyone to say, except for the fact that Jesus is the Son! Osborne captures this when he says: “This is tantamount to a declaration of the deity of Christ. He is more than an Agent; he is the Revealer!”
An even closer look focuses on “those to whom the Son chooses to reveal [the Father]” (verse 27b). “Chooses” is a loaded translation for this Greek verb; HCSB translates better with “anyone to whom the Son desires to reveal him.” In fact, a more careful look at the grammar here yields interesting results. The Greek verb is present tense, usually implying an ongoing action. The specific wording of this section involves repeated action, regardless of the time element. The action relates to anyone or whoever meets the condition of openness to God and his reign.
So, whether in the first century or the twenty-first century, Jesus repeatedly finds those who want to know God, and he, in turn, fulfills his ongoing desire to make the Father known to them. Otherwise, you and I would have never found out!
Copyright 2016 Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from materials created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.
 Mark Lilla, “The Hidden Lesson of Montaigne,”New York Review of Books 58, no. 5 (March 24, 2011): 20.
 Mavis M. Leung, The Discourse Function of apokrithe kai eipen (He Answered and Said) in the Gospel of John, Bibliotheca Sacra 171 (July-September 2014) 307-327. See also France, Matthew, 439, footnote 1.
 Grant R. Osborne, Matthew, Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010)440.
 R. T. France, The Gospel of Matthew, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2007)441.
Many who use this blogconsider themselves sports fans. Another large group of our readers prefer movies. If mixed together, these two groups can resemble oil and water in relation to their preferences, but they have one thing in common. Every sports event and every movie comes to an end at a certain time.
Actually, we are all accustomed to this idea on a broader basis. Every day, week, month, year, decade, century, or millennium comes to an end. So does every life. No one takes the streets to protest the end of Tuesday, November 19, 2016.
Why is it that we can get so much pushback from declaring that a day is coming on which this age and this world will end — a day of judgment? Perhaps the difference is that the day of judgment will be personal; there will be winners and losers. Ecstatic winners. Inconsolable losers.
Is there a way to influence the judge in our favor? Who is the judge? Jesus, the Son of Man and Son of God, will judge our individual cases, and he has commanded all to repent and submit to the reign of God while each has opportunity.
Some failed to listen or comply, and today we will learn of their end. Or, will it be the end of the beginning, with far worse to follow?
20 Then Jesus began to denounce the towns in which most of his miracles had been performed, because they did not repent. 21“Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the miracles that were performed in you had been performed in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. 22 But I tell you, it will be more bearable for Tyre and Sidon on the day of judgment than for you. 23 And you, Capernaum, will you be lifted to the heavens? No, you will go down to Hades. For if the miracles that were performed in you had been performed in Sodom, it would have remained to this day. 24 But I tell you that it will be more bearable for Sodom on the day of judgment than for you.”
Here our secular society must consider a troubling possibility from their viewpoint: if Jesus actually had the authority and the power to overrule the natural order by working miracles, as all ancient sources say, then might he also have the authority to bring the existing natural order to an end? Those committed to a world run exclusively by humans and not by God will bring every tool of denial and distraction into play to keep that question quiet!
Verse 20 has a hidden quality that I want to bring to your attention. While the NIV’s translation “then Jesus began to denounce the towns” is accurate, the underlying Greek verb emphasizes the subject, Jesus. Criticism is so common in our society that we scarcely give it a thought. But, when Jesus denounces you, it’s time to go to red alert! The initial Greek verb typically means to rule or govern, but that verb takes on the meaning “begin” in many contexts, possibly because a person with authority can begin something that lasts. Jesus began things that no one could stop!
Chorazin and Bethsaida lay to the north and east of Capernaum, neither very far away. Archaeology has shown them to be similar in size to Capernaum. In verse 21, Jesus presents us with an if-clause which is contrary to fact since no such miracles were done in Tyre and Sidon. [Stop and consider the implications of Jesus telling us what would have actually happened in a different place and millennium!] Blomberg explains that Tyre and Sidon, in ancient Phoenicia, were paradigms of Israel’s ancient enemies. So, Jesus is shaming these Jewish cities as less responsive to God than those pagan cities already condemned to terrible retribution.
According to one notable authority, “woe” is an interjection that means “how greatly one will suffer” or “what terrible pain will come to one.” The phrase “woe to you” occurs twenty-two times in Isaiah and always marks those who have set themselves against God and his purposes.
These particular towns received the unique honor of having miracles worked within their bounds to benefit people they all knew. After seeing an astonishing shower of God’s kindness from Jesus, the mass of people and their leaders still failed to heed his call for repentance. As R. T. France suggests, these towns seem content to go on as if nothing has changed; they have no clue what the reign of God means.
Verse 22 should have sent chills down the spines of all in Chorazin and Bethsaida who were not committed to Jesus. For Jews to hear that the historically-hated Gentiles from Tyre and Sidon would find judgment day more bearable than a Jewish town would have resulted in profound shock and anger.
But Jesus saves his most searing rebuke for Capernaum (verse 23). Those Jews familiar with Isaiah’s taunts against the proud king of Babylon (Isaiah 14:13, 15) would have found such mocking words used in relation to the pride of Capernaum in verse 23. Just as Babylon had considered itself above all others and untouchable, so Capernaum swelled with unjustified pride. Was it not only prosperous and favorably positioned but also the home of the great healer and exorcist of Galilee — Jesus?
But, Jesus says that Capernaum, like the proud king of Babylon, will not ascend to the heavens; it will descend to Hades, the place of the dead (verse 23). Why? Because Capernaum failed to repent after seeing the miracles performed by Jesus, miracles that would have brought Sodom to its knees and spared it from total destruction. In Israelite minds, Sodom was the epitome of the wickedness.
There is, apparently, more than one way to receive God’s severe punishment. One is to indulge in the deepest depravity like Sodom (Genesis 19:1-29). Another is to have the greatest possible revelation from Jesus himself and then refuse his command to repent and submit to the reign of God. Jesus firmly declares that those failing to heed his words and his miraculous deeds, performed before their eyes, will receive God’s severest treatment on the day of judgment.
Copyright 2016 Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from materials created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.
Church discipline is a widely neglected practice in our evangelical churches. Craig Blomberg has some excellent observations on what the key passage (Matt. 18:15–17) means. Because Blomberg always begins with the biblical text, he finds things that others miss entirely. This time he hits the target by noting that Jesus emphasized searching our hearts for what others might have against us (Matt. 5:23–24).
Blomberg makes a contribution to our understanding by saying that church discipline is never said to be about major sins, yet that is the only form I have ever seen. Most minor issues could and should be handled privately (Matt. 18:15). That out to happen routinely for the unity of the body of Christ. Too many of us avoid people over minor things that could have been resolved long ago.
He also suggests that instead of what amounts to total expulsion at the end of the process, churches might consider barring the offending person from taking communion or other activities only a believer could participate in. After all, our church services are generally open to non-Christians and we want them there to hear God’s Word and see the body of Christ in action.
I served for five years as a nuclear engineer under Admiral Hyman Rickover, the “father of the nuclear Navy.” That time made a profound mark on my life. His group of engineers gave me my first experience with work, and I often felt as if I were chasing a fast freight down the tracks.
Many things the Admiral said influenced me, but one particular comment has stuck with me through the years: “Wherever there is motion, there’s bound to be friction.” He used that engineering principle to describe the steady resistance that must be overcome in accomplishing change.
Rickover spoke of opposition out of his own experience in fighting to build a nuclear-powered Navy. However, the same principle works in doing things for God. Even when believers are moving in the right direction and living for Christ, friction will impede their progress.
Joseph and Mary exemplified this principle in their long struggle to survive and to establish a home for themselves and their infant son, Jesus. We can imagine no more godly endeavor than that, yet the friction proved intense. And it took a severe toll on Joseph and Mary, especially Mary.
God sometimes sets us in motion and then uses the resulting friction to shape us into people who can be even more useful to him. He also allows opposition to challenge our willingness to follow him. Those factors certainly worked on Joseph and Mary when they struggled with external threats, their own fears, and — we will see — conflict with one another.
We too easily forget that Joseph and Mary were real people, just like us — a dad and mom who had hopes for their child and also a deep concern for their own lives. Through them God accomplished great change, but not without struggle. Yet the Lord proved faithful to them in their moment of need.
Because they endured friction in accomplishing change, Joseph and Mary give great encouragement in my personal life. Recently my wife and I prayed for her son and daughter-in-law while they were making a difficult but mandatory move to another city. Although they were under terrific stress, God brought them through the move against seemingly impossible odds.
So, I see the story of Joseph and Mary having direct application in the lives of each of us as we strive to live for Christ.
Matthew’s Midrash about Mary
I have stressed the importance of five women’s names in Matthew’s genealogy of Jesus. Matthew used these names to direct attention to several related stories in the Old Testament. The first two women’s names related primarily to Joseph’s story and that of King Herod, but the next three are all about Mary, the mother of Jesus.
By reviewing Table 1, repeated in the Appendix to the current chapter, you will notice that the Old Testament stories of Ruth (1:5), Bathsheba (1:6), and Miriam (the Old Testament equivalent of Mary in 1:16) underlie the part of Matthew’s account that we will consider in this chapter.
Matthew used these women as types of Mary and used their experiences to help clarify Mary’s experiences. You will remember that the Jews called this comparative technique midrash.
Matthew also selected Old Testament quotations to supplement his streamlined narrative. Thus, he made many of his points by implication rather than by direct statement.
A Forgotten Prophecy
Christ’s godly parents took him to be dedicated in the temple forty days after his birth. During this trip many prophecies were revealed — most of them concerning Jesus. By concentrating on him we can easily miss Simeon’s specific prophecy about Mary. Simeon predicted the controversy that would swirl around Jesus and the way that his ministry would reveal the very hearts of people. He concluded by saying to Mary “A sword will pierce your own soul too” (Luke 2:35).
The sword represents discernment of Jesus’ real identity and division over that identity; the sword does not represent divine judgment. Concerning Mary’s situation, scholar Raymond Brown says, “Indeed her special anguish as the sword of discrimination passes through her soul will consist in recognizing that the claims of Jesus’ heavenly Father outrank any human attachments between him and his mother. . . . Mary here is part of Israel to be tested like the rest.”
Little did Mary know how quickly the secret thoughts of her own heart would come out into the open in the events that would follow. She had been granted an unparalleled privilege, yet an unusual burden came with it.
13 When they [the Magi] had gone, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream. “Get up,” he said, “take the child and his mother and escape to Egypt. Stay there until I tell you, for Herod is going to search for the child to kill him.” 14 So he got up, took the child and his mother during the night and left for Egypt, 15 where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the Lord had said through the prophet: “Out of Egypt I called my son.” (Matthew 2:13–15)
Using Matthew’s lead — the mention of Ruth in the genealogy of Jesus — I believe that the Book of Ruth correlates with this brief paragraph. The book pictures God’s protective care over his people. To describe all parallels between the two stories would take us too far afield.
To inspire your own comparative study, I will mention that the Book of Ruth tells about a husbandless woman — similar to Mary when she became pregnant — who had a son (under righteous circumstances!). This son became famous in Israel and was part of the royal line of David.
The story of Ruth also involves a family that fled Bethlehem in time of great trouble to take refuge among the ancestral enemies of Israel. It suits Matthew’s purpose perfectly to refer to this story of God’s sovereign protection in troubled times.
The husbandless woman was Naomi (Ruth 1:3, 20), who felt bitter because she thought God had brought affliction upon her life. In view of the many parallels between the stories, I think Matthew uses midrash to imply that Mary experienced similar feelings during her family’s flight to Egypt. Remember Simeon’s prophecy about the sword piercing Mary’s heart and consider the circumstances of the escape. Jesus’ parents didn’t even have time to wait for dawn, but had to leave in darkness to escape Herod’s troops.
Many of us have never experienced mortal danger so it’s hard for us to grasp the emotional impact of such an experience. God’s protection was quite real, but so was the danger! Swift obedience saved them.
Matthew’s account informs us that the stay in Egypt led to the fulfillment of prophecy: “Out of Egypt I called my Son” (Hosea 11:1). Many scholars have commented that in this journey Jesus reenacted the national experience of Israel during the exodus, except that he always responded in total obedience whereas the Israelites rebelled against God.
Fulfilling prophecy sounds great. However, after undergoing vicious ridicule in Nazareth, traveling by donkey to Bethlehem in advanced pregnancy, fleeing from a death order, and leaving her own country, we can certainly grasp that Mary went through a lot. She and Joseph had to take each step in an atmosphere of danger and uncertainty. It wasn’t easy!
A Reason to Hope
Though we recounted all of Herod’s history in the previous chapter — to cover it in one place — his biblical appearance extends briefly into our current passage below.
16 When Herod realized that he had been outwitted by the Magi, he was furious, and he gave orders to kill all the boys in Bethlehem and its vicinity who were two years old and under, in accordance with the time he had learned from the Magi. 17 Then what was said through the prophet Jeremiah was fulfilled: 18 “A voice is heard in Ramah, weeping and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children and refusing to be comforted, because they are no more.” (Matthew 2:16–18)
Matthew used the name of Bathsheba (called “Uriah’s wife” in Matt. 1:6) to connect his own account with the Old Testament material that relates to this section. We find Bathsheba in chapter 11 of 2 Samuel, whose theme is that God establishes his king upon the throne in spite of sin and opposition in his path. This theme — God overcoming royal opposition to accomplish his purpose for the nation — perfectly correlates with Matthew’s account.
In 2 Samuel chapter 12, the king was tricked, became enraged, and as a result ordered death, a penalty that fell on the house of David. In each of these respects, the story in 2 Samuel matches Matthew’s story about Jesus, Mary and Joseph.
Realizing that he had been tricked, Herod flew into a rage and ordered death for all of the children near Bethlehem under two years of age. The people called Bethlehem “the city of David,” and this penalty fell on the house of David. Scholars estimate that about twenty young boys were slaughtered.
Various opinions have been offered about why Herod killed children under two years of age. Some think this means that the Magi had seen the “star” two years previous, while others simply see a ruthless man providing plenty of margin. For Herod to kill a few more people would hardly warrant special notice. He had done much worse before.
Matthew used the quotation from Jeremiah 31:15 for his own literary purposes. In the context of this Jeremiah quote, God rebukes Rachel, the wife of the patriarch Jacob. God tells her, “They [her children] will return from the land of the enemy. So there is hope for your descendants . . . . Your children will return to their own land” (Jer. 31:16b–17).
Matthew was telling his readers that, in the midst of tragedy due to the death of the children at Herod’s order, God was working to bring hope for the future of his people in a child’s return — the return of Jesus — from the land of the enemy, Egypt. In this way, Matthew continued to use the midrash method to make comparative comments on the events related to Mary and Joseph.
The rebuke of Rachel also symbolizes a rebuke of Mary for her response to the terrible events of these days. If that sounds like speculation, I would remind you of the prophecy concerning a sword piercing Mary’s heart and urge you to reserve judgment until you hear the story of Miriam, which underlies the final paragraph of Matthew’s story.
Motion and Friction on the Road to Israel
19 After Herod died, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt 20 and said, “Get up, take the child and his mother and go to the land of Israel, for those who were trying to take the child’s life are dead.” 21 So he got up, took the child and his mother and went to the land of Israel. 22 But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning in Judea in place of his father Herod, he was afraid to go there. Having been warned in a dream, he withdrew to the district of Galilee, 23 and he went and lived in a town called Nazareth. So was fulfilled what was said through the prophets, that he would be called a Nazarene. (Matthew 2:19–23)
Mary’s name stands fifth and last among the five women Matthew listed in the genealogy of Jesus. We would expect this final section to deal with her life in a special way. Just as we traced the other women’s stories through their Hebrew names, using the Jewish technique of midrash, so we must look for Mary’s counterpart in the Old Testament stories through her Hebrew name. “Mary” is derived from the Hebrew name Miriam, a famous woman in Israel’s history.
Matthew cleverly drew upon the story of Miriam from Numbers 12–14 to help reveal the deep struggle Mary and Joseph went through in returning to the land of Israel. They were in motion, accomplishing God’s purpose, and yet friction relentlessly balked their steps.
The book of Numbers fits Matthew’s literary purpose because it tells the story of the struggles in the Israelite approach to the land of promise. Miriam’s opposition to Moses blends with the larger conflict between the people and God. Because of the Israelites’ unbelief, rebellion, and disobedience, the journey that should have taken a few months took over forty years. The episode with Miriam retarded the march toward Canaan, and it could not resume until God had dealt with her directly and decisively.
Matthew was implying that the sword had pierced Mary’s heart to a similarly grave degree. God had to deal with Mary before the family of the Messiah could complete its journey back to the land of Israel. Table 5 in the Appendix portrays some of the fascinating parallels between the Numbers incident and Matthew’s story about Mary.
A Tale of Dispute and Correction
The problem between Miriam and Moses initially centered on Moses’ wife Zipporah, who was a Cushite woman (Num. 12:1). Miriam then disputed that God spoke only through Moses and claimed that God spoke through her as well (Num. 12:2).
Moses, a humble man, did not try to stop this rebellion, but left it in the hands of the Lord (Num. 12:3). The Lord immediately called three people out of the tent of meeting: Moses, Miriam, and Aaron. There God revealed his anger against Miriam, in particular, for her rebellion against Moses, and he inflicted her with leprosy for seven days (Num. 12:4–10).
Afterward, the people of God continued their journey toward Canaan. As part of their preparations to enter Canaan, the Israelites sent spies on a reconnaissance mission (Num. 13:2–3). When the spies returned, the majority spoke adversely about the land and the prospects of conquering the Canaanites (Num. 13:31–33). This new obstacle led to fresh unbelief among the people, so God directed them away from Canaan and into the wilderness (Num. 14:25). But God set Joshua apart, along with Caleb, as a man who had followed him without reservation (Num. 14:30).
How It All Fits Together
Following Matthew’s lead, I will now correlate the Numbers story with what Matthew said about Mary and Joseph.
Just as Moses had a conflict with Miriam, Matthew implies — through the midrash using Numbers — that Joseph was having a conflict with Mary, who was rebelling against his authority to take them back into the face of danger. Perhaps Mary questioned whether God had really commanded them to return, and stressed that the Lord hadn’t told her anything about it! The angel had spoken to Joseph (Matt. 2:19), not Mary, about returning to Israel.
Joseph, a humble man like Moses, left the problem in the hands of the Lord. As a result, the Lord summoned Mary, Joseph, and the child and dealt decisively with Mary’s resistance. This is never stated but is implied by the midrash using Numbers.
In the wake of this crisis between Mary and Joseph, the journey continued until a bad report was received about the land — similar to the report from the twelve spies about Canaan. The report concerned Archelaus (Matt. 2:22), the foolish and ruthless successor to the dead Herod.
Archelaus had Herod’s willingness to kill, but he lacked the cleverness and diplomatic skill of his father. Because of this, Archelaus quickly fell into conflict with the Jews and, very early in his reign, killed three thousand of them in the temple during Passover. I believe that was the report that was given to Mary and Joseph, and it ignited their fears.
Matthew directly states that Joseph feared to enter Judah (2:22) and indirectly suggests that Mary struggled with the same thing (just like the Israelites). In response to this, God directed their path to a new destination, just as he had redirected the children of Israel when they struggled. Mary and Joseph would return to Nazareth, not Bethlehem.
Even in this change of plans, Matthew saw a fulfillment of the words spoken by the author of the Book of Judges: “He would be called a Nazarene” (Matthew 2:23 quoting Judges 13:5). To be a Nazarene or Nazarite means to be set apart to God from birth.
Jesus, whose name is derived from the Old Testament name Joshua, was set apart for the work his Father had given him and for the fulfillment of all the promises to Israel. This resembles Joshua, whom God set apart to enter Canaan, defeat the enemies of God, and gain an inheritance for all the people.
Another Glimpse of Friction
One final element of Matthew’s account confirms the general interpretation of events given above. The angel said to Joseph, “Those who were trying to take the child’s life are dead” (Matt. 2:20). Scholars have long wondered why Matthew spoke in the plural (“those”). They have also noted God’s similar words to Moses: “all those who wanted to kill you are dead” (Exod. 4:19).
While researching this reference in Exodus chapter 4, I was amazed that it involved another story — in addition to Num. 12:1 — concerning Moses and his wife Zipporah! After all, the name Zipporah only occurs four times in the whole Bible, so this connection has to be intentional.
In this puzzling episode (Exod. 4:24–26), God called Moses and his family to return to Egypt and deliver his people, but that directive resulted in a grave conflict between Moses and his wife on the journey. Only God’s highly threatening intervention resolved the conflict between Moses and Zipporah and allowed the journey to continue. The similarity to the other stories is obvious; Matthew clearly made another attempt to give the reader background information about the story of Mary and Joseph.
The story of Moses and Zipporah suggests that Moses did not do all that the Lord had instructed, and Matthew’s use of this tale probably implies that Joseph also failed in some of his responses. Matthew certainly informed us that Joseph feared to return to Judea (Matt. 2:22) in spite of the protective hand of God. Mary was not the only one feeling the pressure!
A Backward Glance
Supplementary information is fascinating, but I don’t want it to distract you from the main point. In accomplishing God’s will and fulfilling their role in the salvation program, Mary and Joseph moved forward only in the face of friction from every quarter.
Their experiences amply fulfilled Simeon’s prophecy that Mary would struggle within herself. Mary and Joseph were real people — not the strain-free caricatures we so often carry away from Christmas pageants. Their lives illustrate the friction we too will face in bringing about God’s purposes in our own lives. He will protect us and care for us, and at the same time leave us under certain tensions, which he will also use to shape our lives.
Our Motion and Our Friction
Use the following ideas to bring this truth home in your own experience. Remember that God teaches us his principles to change our lives, and not just to make us smarter!
1. Discouragement, bitterness toward God, fear, and resistance to God’s guidance all find expression at times in the lives of righteous men and women. We will never enjoy it when we see those responses in ourselves. Every believer will experience such feelings at points, though it takes emotional sensitivity and courage to admit to having those emotions. We cringe when we see ourselves resisting God. How do you relate to the following statements?
I need to deal directly with such responses so that I am not hindered in living for Christ.
The Lord concerns himself primarily with my overall attitude toward him; he knows I will have lapses, and he deals with me patiently.
God didn’t dump Mary and Joseph because of their problems. He continued using them to play a vital role in the life of his Son. The Lord undoubtedly took into account that this righteous man and woman were facing tremendous pressures. He takes our circumstances and limitations into account as well.
2. Some types of personal growth take place only through repeated applications of pressure. I used to jog six days a week, but not because I liked it. To me it was never fun. But I couldn’t get into good physical condition without repeated applications of exercise.
Some types of growth and change in life can only come through stressful experience. You can’t learn everything you need to know out of a book. Even Jesus “learned obedience from what he suffered” (Heb. 5:8). In spite of this reality, many of us think of learning as something that happens only in a classroom. That’s only the tip of the iceberg!
What is Christ trying to teach me through my experiences — especially the hard ones?
Focus particularly on repeated patterns in your behavior. Have you missed some important insights that could enrich your life?
Do you find yourself running into the same brick wall again and again? Do your failures tend to cluster in a certain area? What is God trying to teach you through those experiences?
3. God uses the hardships we face to prepare us for the future. I don’t think he ever leaves us totally tension-free. If he leads us into a troubled situation, we can trust him to be there with us. Ask yourself:
What does the Lord want me to face?
Am I facing it or running from it?
A Final Word
During World War II, the Japanese sent kamikaze pilots on suicide flights in a desperate attempt to prevent defeat. Those men flew what amounted to bombs with wings on them.
Most planes have landing gear, but Kamikaze planes had wheels that fell away on take-off so the pilot couldn’t change his mind! Some of the pilots didn’t appreciate the missions they were ordered to do. One man took off, flew his plane over his commanding officer’s house, and strafed it with machine gun fire before heading out to sea! You see, those men were expendable in the eyes of their superiors.
God may send us into spiritual battle, but he doesn’t consider us expendable. We are not like paper cups that God casually throws aside after each use. The Lord wants to use us, just as he did Joseph and Mary, but it won’t always be easy and our faith will be tested at times.
As we live for Christ and grow in him, we will accomplish motion only by facing friction. As he calls on us to overcome great opposition, he will personally go with us every step of the way.
Coming next . . .
In Chapter 4, we join Jesus at the point just following his baptism when the Holy Spirit led him into the wilderness to be tempted by Satan. That temptation must be endured before Jesus enters his public ministry.
Appendix to Chapter 3
Table 1 shows the women mentioned in Matthew’s genealogy and the corresponding material in the Old Testament that contains their stories.
Table 1 (repeated)
The Literary Structure of Matthew 1–2
Related Old Testament Story
Tamar (Genesis 38)
Rahab (Joshua 2–6)
Ruth (Book of Ruth)
Bathsheba (2 Samuel 11)
Mary = Miriam (Numbers 12–14)
Table 5 illustrates the kind of comparison that lies at the heart of the midrash technique Matthew used to add depth to his lean account about Jesus.
A Clue to a Conflict between Mary & Joseph
Problem with Moses’ wife (12:1)
Problem with Joseph’s wife*
God speaks to Moses (12:2)
God speaks to Joseph (2:19–20)
Moses a humble man (12:3)
Joseph a humble man*
Three called out (12:4)
Three called out (2:19–20)
God deals with Miriam (12:5–10)
God deals with Mary*
Journey continues (12:15)
Journey continues (2:21)
Report about the land (13:26–33)
Report about the land (2:22)
God directs new path (14:25)
God directs new path (2:22)
Joshua set apart (14:30)
Jesus set apart (2:23)
*Implied by the parallel passages in Numbers.
 Raymond E. Brown, The Birth of the Messiah (New York: Doubleday, 1979) 465.
 I am downplaying Aaron’s rebellion for clarity.
Every generation has its pet phrases to express things. When I was growing up, the word “cool” described just about anything good. With the proper voice inflection and context, you can make phrases like that mean anything you want.
Teenagers regularly create such new expressions, but adults can also get in on the action. In conversations among men, and especially older businessmen, someone will, at appropriate points, mention “the bottom line”.
The bottom line gets its meaning from the world of accounting. When you get your bank statement, a little box on the page tells you the current balance; that’s the bottom line. By extension this phrase comes to mean the outcome, the summary or the end result.
Our problem is that we can’t usually know what the bottom line of our decisions is going to be. What do we do then? In fact, we must decide some of the most important issues of our lives without knowing the bottom line. In choosing a marriage partner, a career, a home, and many other things, we must make a choice without knowing the eventual outcome.
These uncertainties about personal decisions are compounded by other factors far beyond our control. Terrorism, crime, and economic crisis spread their fears into the lives of almost every American. Faraway events— tsunamis, earthquakes, political turmoil in the Arab world — can disrupt our whole culture.
In such an atmosphere I find it comforting to know that behind the scenes God rules as King over all. To know that my allegiance to Jesus Christ makes me a part of his kingdom and affords me his protective care helps to calm me in the midst of many chilling threats.
Is there any evidence of this principle at work after the birth of Jesus? Oh yes!
Haunting Similarities in Jericho
By intentionally including the names of five women in the genealogy of Jesus, Matthew hints at Old Testament stories that relate to Jesus’ birth (see Table 1 in the Appendix to chapter 1). Using these stories for comparison with the story of Jesus and his parents involves an ancient Jewish technique called midrash. Matthew used midrash throughout Matthew chapters 1 and 2 to introduce additional information.
By using the name Rahab, the Canaanite prostitute who hid the Israelite spies in Jericho (Joshua chapters 2 and 6), Matthew informs us of a relationship between her story in the Old Testament and Matthew 2:1–12. This key will help us unlock the historical background for Matthew’s story about the visiting Magi — learned Persians or Babylonians who studied signs — who worship Jesus during the frantic execution of a deadly plot by King Herod to kill him.
Table 3 — see the Appendix to this chapter —details the many similarities between the story of Rahab and Matthew’s account of the Magi. You may want to refer to this table again after learning more about Herod and the events at the end of his reign.
The parallel story of Rahab helps determine that King Herod was strongly involved with Jericho during the general time of Jesus’ birth and the arrival of the Magi. Ancient Jericho was located fourteen miles east of Jerusalem. By correlating that fact with the history written by Josephus, a first-century Jewish historian, we learn that the Magi appeared during the final few months of Herod’s life and reign. Such timing fits perfectly with the findings of modern scholarship that Jesus was born just a few months before Herod’s death.
Where is the king?
1 After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem 2 and asked, “Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.” (Matthew 2:1–2)
The Greek text of Matthew 2:1 provides a bit more dramatic impact than the translation given above. I would put it like this: “After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, behold Magi from the east appeared in Jerusalem.” The Magi suddenly and unexpectedly burst upon the scene in Jerusalem. I believe they came secretly and quietly, similar to the way that the Israelite spies entered Jericho in the parallel account about Rahab.
The Magi asked a question filled with threat: “Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews?” Herod, who was ruling as a vassal king under the Romans, had not descended from the house of David. New Testament scholar Stanley D. Toussaint says, “Herod, of the Idumaean dynasty, was a usurper.” Rome had put him in power to reward his cooperation in previous wars.
The people hated Herod because he was not a Jew and also because he had killed members of his own family who were Jewish. So the question posed by the Magi meant double trouble for Herod. It reminded the people who heard it that Herod was not a Jew and that another had been born to be king over his own people.
A King Searches for the King
3 When King Herod heard this he was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him. (Matthew 2:3)
To protect his throne, Herod had informers and agents spread throughout Judea. Herod ruled his territory much like a modern dictator, using military force and any other means — such as torture and death — he considered necessary to hold power. Herod was agitated by foreign visitors asking threatening questions about his throne.
I always understood why Herod was disturbed, but it puzzled me that all Jerusalem was alarmed as well. Everything fell into place when I studied the period through the eyes of Josephus (A.D. 37 – c. A.D. 100), the Jewish historian of that era.
When Christ was born during the final months of Herod’s life, the king was seventy years of age. Herod had been stricken with various physical problems — literally from head to foot — and the Jews did not expect him to live much longer. False rumors of his death regularly produced confusion.
During his final illness, Herod became even more ruthless and paranoid. Anything that threatened him increased the chance that people would suddenly be grabbed off of the street, hauled off to one of his fortresses, and tortured for information.
The birth of Jesus brought a fresh threat to Herod’s rule, but there had been others. Over the years, five of Herod’s wives and seven of his sons figured into the struggle to succeed him. Herod dealt with his own family just as ruthlessly as he did with those outside. He murdered one of his wives and three of his sons over the course of his life because he suspected plots.
So, for their own self-protection, the people living in Jerusalem kept themselves aware of anything that might disturb King Herod. Such events could initiate a new reign of terror!
Partly from Matthew’s own lead and partly from the history written by Josephus, we know that Herod spent considerable time in Jericho during the period of time in which Jesus was born and the Magi arrived in Jerusalem. By living in his winter palace at Jericho, Herod could stay about ten degrees warmer during those months than he could in Jerusalem. And he also had access to warm water baths on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. His physicians held out hope that those baths might cure his many ailments.
As Herod lay ill in Jerusalem and Jericho, God unfolded his own movements right under the king’s nose. Herod could never lay a hand on Jesus.
Part of the story’s irony involves Herod exerting all of his energy to find and kill Jesus, while the Lord casually brought the Magi into the capital city and on to worship Jesus without Herod being able to stop it. Jesus and his parents enjoyed complete safety in the midst of danger because of the Lord’s hidden rule.
Herod’s Searching Questions
4 When he had called together all the people’s chief priests and teachers of the law, he asked them where the Messiah was to be born. 5 “In Bethlehem in Judea,” they replied, “for this is what the prophet has written: 6 “‘But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for out of you will come a ruler who will shepherd my people Israel.’” (Matthew 2:4–6)
Herod summoned the Jewish religious leaders — in either Jerusalem or Jericho — and kept on pressing them for information about the birthplace of the Messiah. From the Scriptures they informed him rightly that the Messiah was to be born in Bethlehem. Even with this accurate word, Herod could not alter the bottom line.
The material quoted by the experts from the Old Testament actually comes from two different places. The name Bethlehem comes from Micah 5:2, while the closing statement about Jesus, saying he “will shepherd my people Israel,” comes from 1 Chronicles 11:2.
In both Old Testament contexts, the immediately preceding verses have a message relevant to the passage in Matthew. Micah spoke of a walled city against which a siege is laid and in which a ruler dies (Micah 5:1) — quite reminiscent of the Jericho story (Joshua 2 and 6). As we will see, Herod, like the ancient king of Jericho, will also die in Jericho while trying to oppose God.
Similarly, 1 Chronicles 10:14 tells how the Lord put Saul the murderous king to death and turned the kingdom over to David. Just as Saul often tried to kill David and prevent him from becoming king of Israel, so Herod tried to kill the son of David, Jesus, the coming King.
Matthew is extensively using the comparative techniques of midrash to add detail from these stories.
An Audience with a King
7 Then Herod called the Magi secretly and found out from them the exact time the star had appeared. 8 He sent them to Bethlehem and said, “Go and search carefully for the child. As soon as you find him, report to me, so that I too may go and worship him.” (Matthew 2:7–8)
Herod next summoned the Magi secretly, either in Jerusalem or Jericho. He took tremendous pains to extract precise information from them.
Undoubtedly, Herod would have worshiped Jesus with the point of a knife if only he could. Herod hoped to turn the Magi to his own purposes through their zeal to find Jesus.
The “Star” Leads the Way
9 After they had heard the king, they went on their way, and the star they had seen when it rose went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was. 10 When they saw the star, they were overjoyed. (Matthew 2:9–10)
The Magi could not know for sure that Bethlehem was their destination. They were relying on God’s guidance to bring them to the right place. When the supernatural light appeared to them once again, they experienced a joy verging on ecstasy.
Contrary to what you have heard, the “star” that guided the Magi was not a star in the night sky. This shining light guided them in such a specific way that it must have been a more earthbound supernatural light that guided them to their destination. Matthew tells us that the light “went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was” (Matt. 2:9).
New Testament scholar Craig Keener says, “The description of God’s leading the Magi by a moving, supernatural sign may recall how God led his own people by the fire and cloud in the wilderness (Exod. 13:21–22).”
Conduct a simple experiment for yourself. Go out tonight, look into the sky to pick out a star, and then ask yourself over which house that star is standing. You will quickly realize that a normal star could not guide anyone to a specific location. In my city, a normal star positioned near the horizon could be considered to stand over thousands of houses on a line toward the horizon.
Further, such a star could as easily have guided King Herod’s agents as it did those eastern wise men. Extensive efforts to relate this supernatural light to conjunctions of planets, comets, and other astronomical objects all amount to misguided effort. The “star” was a guiding miracle of God, given to a select group of men so that the Lord could carry out his plans in the midst of deep danger.
Jewish shepherds first bowed down to the newborn Jesus on the night of his birth. Much later — perhaps as much as 45 days — the Gentile wise men came to worship. It is amusing that while Herod is called king many times in the course of this passage, no one bows down to him! Only Jesus receives honor and worship. Matthew indirectly makes clear that Jesus is the real king, not Herod.
Just as the spies did not go back to Joshua’s army by the same route after scouting Jericho (Joshua 2:15–24), so also the Magi returned to their own country by another path. They avoided returning to Herod, and thus they completed the God-given mission undertaken with Herod’s full knowledge. Under God’s guiding hand, Herod proved powerless to stop them or to use them for his own purposes. God wrote the bottom line!
How It All Fits Together
Now we are ready to weave Matthew’s account together with secular history in an attempt to reconstruct the events surrounding Jesus’ birth. (To examine this information in table form, see Table 4 in the Appendix to this chapter.)
In December, 5 B.C., Mary gave birth to Jesus in Bethlehem, just five miles south of Jerusalem. Angels and shepherds worshiped him. Forty days after his birth, Jesus was dedicated by his faithful parents at the temple in Jerusalem.
With disturbing suddenness, the Magi arrived in Jerusalem. They began quietly asking questions about the one who had been born king of the Jews. Herod’s many agents soon carried word to him and greatly disturbed his suspicious mind. All Jerusalem feared the consequences.
Because of his illness, Herod first summoned the religious leaders to his bedside — in Jerusalem or Jericho — to reveal to him the location where the Messiah of the Jews would be born. Next he secretly summoned the Magi to reveal all they knew (Matt. 2:7). Then he sent the Magi to find Jesus and report back to him.
The Magi, guided by the supernatural light, found Jesus at a certain “house” (Matt. 2:11) and worshiped him. Then they departed without returning to Herod because God had warned them not to.
In response to another dramatic warning from the Lord, Mary, Joseph, and Jesus fled to Egypt (Matt. 2:13). This timely warning spared them from Herod’s own order that the children near Bethlehem be put to death. Herod had become enraged when he learned that the Magi had eluded him and ordered the death of Bethlehem’s youngest children (Matt. 2:16) — thought to be about twenty in number.
As word spread that Herod’s illness was entering its last stages, his opponents in Jerusalem became more bold. Herod had erected a golden eagle on the temple in violation of Jewish law. Suddenly a rumor circulated that the king had died. Buoyed by this news, two men named Judas and Matthias incited a crowd to tear down the golden eagle.
But the rumor proved false, and temple troops managed to seize forty of the men and take them before the ailing king. Herod sent them to Jericho for trial and punishment.
By this time, Herod’s illness was growing worse, and the mineral baths near the Dead Sea were not helping. Herod’s son Antipater, who was in prison in the winter palace at Jericho, heard an outcry when his father attempted to kill himself with a paring knife. Antipater celebrated, and that act cost him his life because his father’s suicide attempt had been stopped!
Five days later, the ruthless, death-dealing Herod died in Jericho. Everyone rejoiced!
A Backward Glance
In the midst of an evil, corrupt kingdom, God sent a defenseless family and helpless baby to face many uncertainties and real dangers. But God protected them through it all, fulfilled the prophecies about Jesus’ birth and carried out his plan for the family’s escape without Herod being able to stop it.
That gives me tremendous hope when I run into the threats and dangers we all face in our own lives. Through faith in Jesus Christ, we also belong to God’s family, and he can write the bottom line for us too.
Applying the Truth to Life
Use the following ideas to allow the principles from this story to change your own life:
1. God’s oversight of our world is a reality often hidden from our view by the clamor and tension of current world events. Too often we fearfully focus our attention on the news media and forget God. He has the power and authority to intervene at any level, including the personal circumstances of this world’s most wicked rulers. I think these facts should lead you to take the following steps:
Pray for God’s guidance for your governing officials.
Pray that God will oppose the power of evil rulers.
Pray for the Lord’s protective care over your own household.
2. Clearly, the obedience of the Magi and Joseph to God’s command spared them from death. Those who respond to the King of heaven and earth are shielded from much of the pain and sorrow that sin brings upon our world. How about you?
Do you know God’s revealed will, the Scriptures, so that you know how to respond to life-situations that you face?
Do you see yourself as one who generally obeys God’s principles for living?
Are you growing wiser and more responsive to God as each year fades into another?
3. What important situations are you facing right now whose outcome you can’t see?
How do you feel about the uncertainty?
What involvement do you think God could have in your circumstances?
A Final Word
I generally don’t take risks unless compelled to. So, it still baffles me that before leaving for Dallas Theological Seminary I quit a very secure job without knowing whether the Seminary would accept me. To do otherwise would have delayed my application for two more years. It felt funny to burn my bridges behind me without having a clear path ahead. The bottom line lay far beyond my control.
In such times of uncertainty, God’s hidden rule over my life helps to chase away anxiety. I know that he can totally control the bottom line. Just as he protected Jesus and his parents from Herod’s evil schemes, so he can shield me in hidden but powerful ways. That knowledge helps me to take necessary risks and to make choices.
The assurance of God’s hidden rule will comfort you, even when you can’t see the bottom line!
Coming next week . . .
In Chapter 3 (next week) we learn that Mary, the mother of Jesus, experienced great stress and even exhibited disobedience due to the dangers directed toward her family.
Appendix to Chapter 2
Table 3 illustrates the kind of comparison that lies at the heart of the midrash technique Matthew used to add depth to his brief account about Jesus.