Church discipline is a widely neglected practice in our evangelical churches. Craig Blomberg has some excellent observations on what the key passage (Matt. 18:15–17) means. Because Blomberg always begins with the biblical text, he finds things that others miss entirely. This time he hits the target by noting that Jesus emphasized searching our hearts for what others might have against us (Matt. 5:23–24).
Blomberg makes a contribution to our understanding by saying that church discipline is never said to be about major sins, yet that is the only form I have ever seen. Most minor issues could and should be handled privately (Matt. 18:15). That out to happen routinely for the unity of the body of Christ. Too many of us avoid people over minor things that could have been resolved long ago.
He also suggests that instead of what amounts to total expulsion at the end of the process, churches might consider barring the offending person from taking communion or other activities only a believer could participate in. After all, our church services are generally open to non-Christians and we want them there to hear God’s Word and see the body of Christ in action.
I served for five years as a nuclear engineer under Admiral Hyman Rickover, the “father of the nuclear Navy.” That time made a profound mark on my life. His group of engineers gave me my first experience with work, and I often felt as if I were chasing a fast freight down the tracks.
Many things the Admiral said influenced me, but one particular comment has stuck with me through the years: “Wherever there is motion, there’s bound to be friction.” He used that engineering principle to describe the steady resistance that must be overcome in accomplishing change.
Rickover spoke of opposition out of his own experience in fighting to build a nuclear-powered Navy. However, the same principle works in doing things for God. Even when believers are moving in the right direction and living for Christ, friction will impede their progress.
Joseph and Mary exemplified this principle in their long struggle to survive and to establish a home for themselves and their infant son, Jesus. We can imagine no more godly endeavor than that, yet the friction proved intense. And it took a severe toll on Joseph and Mary, especially Mary.
God sometimes sets us in motion and then uses the resulting friction to shape us into people who can be even more useful to him. He also allows opposition to challenge our willingness to follow him. Those factors certainly worked on Joseph and Mary when they struggled with external threats, their own fears, and — we will see — conflict with one another.
We too easily forget that Joseph and Mary were real people, just like us — a dad and mom who had hopes for their child and also a deep concern for their own lives. Through them God accomplished great change, but not without struggle. Yet the Lord proved faithful to them in their moment of need.
Because they endured friction in accomplishing change, Joseph and Mary give great encouragement in my personal life. Recently my wife and I prayed for her son and daughter-in-law while they were making a difficult but mandatory move to another city. Although they were under terrific stress, God brought them through the move against seemingly impossible odds.
So, I see the story of Joseph and Mary having direct application in the lives of each of us as we strive to live for Christ.
Matthew’s Midrash about Mary
I have stressed the importance of five women’s names in Matthew’s genealogy of Jesus. Matthew used these names to direct attention to several related stories in the Old Testament. The first two women’s names related primarily to Joseph’s story and that of King Herod, but the next three are all about Mary, the mother of Jesus.
By reviewing Table 1, repeated in the Appendix to the current chapter, you will notice that the Old Testament stories of Ruth (1:5), Bathsheba (1:6), and Miriam (the Old Testament equivalent of Mary in 1:16) underlie the part of Matthew’s account that we will consider in this chapter.
Matthew used these women as types of Mary and used their experiences to help clarify Mary’s experiences. You will remember that the Jews called this comparative technique midrash.
Matthew also selected Old Testament quotations to supplement his streamlined narrative. Thus, he made many of his points by implication rather than by direct statement.
A Forgotten Prophecy
Christ’s godly parents took him to be dedicated in the temple forty days after his birth. During this trip many prophecies were revealed — most of them concerning Jesus. By concentrating on him we can easily miss Simeon’s specific prophecy about Mary. Simeon predicted the controversy that would swirl around Jesus and the way that his ministry would reveal the very hearts of people. He concluded by saying to Mary “A sword will pierce your own soul too” (Luke 2:35).
The sword represents discernment of Jesus’ real identity and division over that identity; the sword does not represent divine judgment. Concerning Mary’s situation, scholar Raymond Brown says, “Indeed her special anguish as the sword of discrimination passes through her soul will consist in recognizing that the claims of Jesus’ heavenly Father outrank any human attachments between him and his mother. . . . Mary here is part of Israel to be tested like the rest.”
Little did Mary know how quickly the secret thoughts of her own heart would come out into the open in the events that would follow. She had been granted an unparalleled privilege, yet an unusual burden came with it.
13 When they [the Magi] had gone, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream. “Get up,” he said, “take the child and his mother and escape to Egypt. Stay there until I tell you, for Herod is going to search for the child to kill him.” 14 So he got up, took the child and his mother during the night and left for Egypt, 15 where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the Lord had said through the prophet: “Out of Egypt I called my son.” (Matthew 2:13–15)
Using Matthew’s lead — the mention of Ruth in the genealogy of Jesus — I believe that the Book of Ruth correlates with this brief paragraph. The book pictures God’s protective care over his people. To describe all parallels between the two stories would take us too far afield.
To inspire your own comparative study, I will mention that the Book of Ruth tells about a husbandless woman — similar to Mary when she became pregnant — who had a son (under righteous circumstances!). This son became famous in Israel and was part of the royal line of David.
The story of Ruth also involves a family that fled Bethlehem in time of great trouble to take refuge among the ancestral enemies of Israel. It suits Matthew’s purpose perfectly to refer to this story of God’s sovereign protection in troubled times.
The husbandless woman was Naomi (Ruth 1:3, 20), who felt bitter because she thought God had brought affliction upon her life. In view of the many parallels between the stories, I think Matthew uses midrash to imply that Mary experienced similar feelings during her family’s flight to Egypt. Remember Simeon’s prophecy about the sword piercing Mary’s heart and consider the circumstances of the escape. Jesus’ parents didn’t even have time to wait for dawn, but had to leave in darkness to escape Herod’s troops.
Many of us have never experienced mortal danger so it’s hard for us to grasp the emotional impact of such an experience. God’s protection was quite real, but so was the danger! Swift obedience saved them.
Matthew’s account informs us that the stay in Egypt led to the fulfillment of prophecy: “Out of Egypt I called my Son” (Hosea 11:1). Many scholars have commented that in this journey Jesus reenacted the national experience of Israel during the exodus, except that he always responded in total obedience whereas the Israelites rebelled against God.
Fulfilling prophecy sounds great. However, after undergoing vicious ridicule in Nazareth, traveling by donkey to Bethlehem in advanced pregnancy, fleeing from a death order, and leaving her own country, we can certainly grasp that Mary went through a lot. She and Joseph had to take each step in an atmosphere of danger and uncertainty. It wasn’t easy!
A Reason to Hope
Though we recounted all of Herod’s history in the previous chapter — to cover it in one place — his biblical appearance extends briefly into our current passage below.
16 When Herod realized that he had been outwitted by the Magi, he was furious, and he gave orders to kill all the boys in Bethlehem and its vicinity who were two years old and under, in accordance with the time he had learned from the Magi. 17 Then what was said through the prophet Jeremiah was fulfilled: 18 “A voice is heard in Ramah, weeping and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children and refusing to be comforted, because they are no more.” (Matthew 2:16–18)
Matthew used the name of Bathsheba (called “Uriah’s wife” in Matt. 1:6) to connect his own account with the Old Testament material that relates to this section. We find Bathsheba in chapter 11 of 2 Samuel, whose theme is that God establishes his king upon the throne in spite of sin and opposition in his path. This theme — God overcoming royal opposition to accomplish his purpose for the nation — perfectly correlates with Matthew’s account.
In 2 Samuel chapter 12, the king was tricked, became enraged, and as a result ordered death, a penalty that fell on the house of David. In each of these respects, the story in 2 Samuel matches Matthew’s story about Jesus, Mary and Joseph.
Realizing that he had been tricked, Herod flew into a rage and ordered death for all of the children near Bethlehem under two years of age. The people called Bethlehem “the city of David,” and this penalty fell on the house of David. Scholars estimate that about twenty young boys were slaughtered.
Various opinions have been offered about why Herod killed children under two years of age. Some think this means that the Magi had seen the “star” two years previous, while others simply see a ruthless man providing plenty of margin. For Herod to kill a few more people would hardly warrant special notice. He had done much worse before.
Matthew used the quotation from Jeremiah 31:15 for his own literary purposes. In the context of this Jeremiah quote, God rebukes Rachel, the wife of the patriarch Jacob. God tells her, “They [her children] will return from the land of the enemy. So there is hope for your descendants . . . . Your children will return to their own land” (Jer. 31:16b–17).
Matthew was telling his readers that, in the midst of tragedy due to the death of the children at Herod’s order, God was working to bring hope for the future of his people in a child’s return — the return of Jesus — from the land of the enemy, Egypt. In this way, Matthew continued to use the midrash method to make comparative comments on the events related to Mary and Joseph.
The rebuke of Rachel also symbolizes a rebuke of Mary for her response to the terrible events of these days. If that sounds like speculation, I would remind you of the prophecy concerning a sword piercing Mary’s heart and urge you to reserve judgment until you hear the story of Miriam, which underlies the final paragraph of Matthew’s story.
Motion and Friction on the Road to Israel
19 After Herod died, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt 20 and said, “Get up, take the child and his mother and go to the land of Israel, for those who were trying to take the child’s life are dead.” 21 So he got up, took the child and his mother and went to the land of Israel. 22 But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning in Judea in place of his father Herod, he was afraid to go there. Having been warned in a dream, he withdrew to the district of Galilee, 23 and he went and lived in a town called Nazareth. So was fulfilled what was said through the prophets, that he would be called a Nazarene. (Matthew 2:19–23)
Mary’s name stands fifth and last among the five women Matthew listed in the genealogy of Jesus. We would expect this final section to deal with her life in a special way. Just as we traced the other women’s stories through their Hebrew names, using the Jewish technique of midrash, so we must look for Mary’s counterpart in the Old Testament stories through her Hebrew name. “Mary” is derived from the Hebrew name Miriam, a famous woman in Israel’s history.
Matthew cleverly drew upon the story of Miriam from Numbers 12–14 to help reveal the deep struggle Mary and Joseph went through in returning to the land of Israel. They were in motion, accomplishing God’s purpose, and yet friction relentlessly balked their steps.
The book of Numbers fits Matthew’s literary purpose because it tells the story of the struggles in the Israelite approach to the land of promise. Miriam’s opposition to Moses blends with the larger conflict between the people and God. Because of the Israelites’ unbelief, rebellion, and disobedience, the journey that should have taken a few months took over forty years. The episode with Miriam retarded the march toward Canaan, and it could not resume until God had dealt with her directly and decisively.
Matthew was implying that the sword had pierced Mary’s heart to a similarly grave degree. God had to deal with Mary before the family of the Messiah could complete its journey back to the land of Israel. Table 5 in the Appendix portrays some of the fascinating parallels between the Numbers incident and Matthew’s story about Mary.
A Tale of Dispute and Correction
The problem between Miriam and Moses initially centered on Moses’ wife Zipporah, who was a Cushite woman (Num. 12:1). Miriam then disputed that God spoke only through Moses and claimed that God spoke through her as well (Num. 12:2).
Moses, a humble man, did not try to stop this rebellion, but left it in the hands of the Lord (Num. 12:3). The Lord immediately called three people out of the tent of meeting: Moses, Miriam, and Aaron. There God revealed his anger against Miriam, in particular, for her rebellion against Moses, and he inflicted her with leprosy for seven days (Num. 12:4–10).
Afterward, the people of God continued their journey toward Canaan. As part of their preparations to enter Canaan, the Israelites sent spies on a reconnaissance mission (Num. 13:2–3). When the spies returned, the majority spoke adversely about the land and the prospects of conquering the Canaanites (Num. 13:31–33). This new obstacle led to fresh unbelief among the people, so God directed them away from Canaan and into the wilderness (Num. 14:25). But God set Joshua apart, along with Caleb, as a man who had followed him without reservation (Num. 14:30).
How It All Fits Together
Following Matthew’s lead, I will now correlate the Numbers story with what Matthew said about Mary and Joseph.
Just as Moses had a conflict with Miriam, Matthew implies — through the midrash using Numbers — that Joseph was having a conflict with Mary, who was rebelling against his authority to take them back into the face of danger. Perhaps Mary questioned whether God had really commanded them to return, and stressed that the Lord hadn’t told her anything about it! The angel had spoken to Joseph (Matt. 2:19), not Mary, about returning to Israel.
Joseph, a humble man like Moses, left the problem in the hands of the Lord. As a result, the Lord summoned Mary, Joseph, and the child and dealt decisively with Mary’s resistance. This is never stated but is implied by the midrash using Numbers.
In the wake of this crisis between Mary and Joseph, the journey continued until a bad report was received about the land — similar to the report from the twelve spies about Canaan. The report concerned Archelaus (Matt. 2:22), the foolish and ruthless successor to the dead Herod.
Archelaus had Herod’s willingness to kill, but he lacked the cleverness and diplomatic skill of his father. Because of this, Archelaus quickly fell into conflict with the Jews and, very early in his reign, killed three thousand of them in the temple during Passover. I believe that was the report that was given to Mary and Joseph, and it ignited their fears.
Matthew directly states that Joseph feared to enter Judah (2:22) and indirectly suggests that Mary struggled with the same thing (just like the Israelites). In response to this, God directed their path to a new destination, just as he had redirected the children of Israel when they struggled. Mary and Joseph would return to Nazareth, not Bethlehem.
Even in this change of plans, Matthew saw a fulfillment of the words spoken by the author of the Book of Judges: “He would be called a Nazarene” (Matthew 2:23 quoting Judges 13:5). To be a Nazarene or Nazarite means to be set apart to God from birth.
Jesus, whose name is derived from the Old Testament name Joshua, was set apart for the work his Father had given him and for the fulfillment of all the promises to Israel. This resembles Joshua, whom God set apart to enter Canaan, defeat the enemies of God, and gain an inheritance for all the people.
Another Glimpse of Friction
One final element of Matthew’s account confirms the general interpretation of events given above. The angel said to Joseph, “Those who were trying to take the child’s life are dead” (Matt. 2:20). Scholars have long wondered why Matthew spoke in the plural (“those”). They have also noted God’s similar words to Moses: “all those who wanted to kill you are dead” (Exod. 4:19).
While researching this reference in Exodus chapter 4, I was amazed that it involved another story — in addition to Num. 12:1 — concerning Moses and his wife Zipporah! After all, the name Zipporah only occurs four times in the whole Bible, so this connection has to be intentional.
In this puzzling episode (Exod. 4:24–26), God called Moses and his family to return to Egypt and deliver his people, but that directive resulted in a grave conflict between Moses and his wife on the journey. Only God’s highly threatening intervention resolved the conflict between Moses and Zipporah and allowed the journey to continue. The similarity to the other stories is obvious; Matthew clearly made another attempt to give the reader background information about the story of Mary and Joseph.
The story of Moses and Zipporah suggests that Moses did not do all that the Lord had instructed, and Matthew’s use of this tale probably implies that Joseph also failed in some of his responses. Matthew certainly informed us that Joseph feared to return to Judea (Matt. 2:22) in spite of the protective hand of God. Mary was not the only one feeling the pressure!
A Backward Glance
Supplementary information is fascinating, but I don’t want it to distract you from the main point. In accomplishing God’s will and fulfilling their role in the salvation program, Mary and Joseph moved forward only in the face of friction from every quarter.
Their experiences amply fulfilled Simeon’s prophecy that Mary would struggle within herself. Mary and Joseph were real people — not the strain-free caricatures we so often carry away from Christmas pageants. Their lives illustrate the friction we too will face in bringing about God’s purposes in our own lives. He will protect us and care for us, and at the same time leave us under certain tensions, which he will also use to shape our lives.
Our Motion and Our Friction
Use the following ideas to bring this truth home in your own experience. Remember that God teaches us his principles to change our lives, and not just to make us smarter!
1. Discouragement, bitterness toward God, fear, and resistance to God’s guidance all find expression at times in the lives of righteous men and women. We will never enjoy it when we see those responses in ourselves. Every believer will experience such feelings at points, though it takes emotional sensitivity and courage to admit to having those emotions. We cringe when we see ourselves resisting God. How do you relate to the following statements?
I need to deal directly with such responses so that I am not hindered in living for Christ.
The Lord concerns himself primarily with my overall attitude toward him; he knows I will have lapses, and he deals with me patiently.
God didn’t dump Mary and Joseph because of their problems. He continued using them to play a vital role in the life of his Son. The Lord undoubtedly took into account that this righteous man and woman were facing tremendous pressures. He takes our circumstances and limitations into account as well.
2. Some types of personal growth take place only through repeated applications of pressure. I used to jog six days a week, but not because I liked it. To me it was never fun. But I couldn’t get into good physical condition without repeated applications of exercise.
Some types of growth and change in life can only come through stressful experience. You can’t learn everything you need to know out of a book. Even Jesus “learned obedience from what he suffered” (Heb. 5:8). In spite of this reality, many of us think of learning as something that happens only in a classroom. That’s only the tip of the iceberg!
What is Christ trying to teach me through my experiences — especially the hard ones?
Focus particularly on repeated patterns in your behavior. Have you missed some important insights that could enrich your life?
Do you find yourself running into the same brick wall again and again? Do your failures tend to cluster in a certain area? What is God trying to teach you through those experiences?
3. God uses the hardships we face to prepare us for the future. I don’t think he ever leaves us totally tension-free. If he leads us into a troubled situation, we can trust him to be there with us. Ask yourself:
What does the Lord want me to face?
Am I facing it or running from it?
A Final Word
During World War II, the Japanese sent kamikaze pilots on suicide flights in a desperate attempt to prevent defeat. Those men flew what amounted to bombs with wings on them.
Most planes have landing gear, but Kamikaze planes had wheels that fell away on take-off so the pilot couldn’t change his mind! Some of the pilots didn’t appreciate the missions they were ordered to do. One man took off, flew his plane over his commanding officer’s house, and strafed it with machine gun fire before heading out to sea! You see, those men were expendable in the eyes of their superiors.
God may send us into spiritual battle, but he doesn’t consider us expendable. We are not like paper cups that God casually throws aside after each use. The Lord wants to use us, just as he did Joseph and Mary, but it won’t always be easy and our faith will be tested at times.
As we live for Christ and grow in him, we will accomplish motion only by facing friction. As he calls on us to overcome great opposition, he will personally go with us every step of the way.
Coming next . . .
In Chapter 4, we join Jesus at the point just following his baptism when the Holy Spirit led him into the wilderness to be tempted by Satan. That temptation must be endured before Jesus enters his public ministry.
Appendix to Chapter 3
Table 1 shows the women mentioned in Matthew’s genealogy and the corresponding material in the Old Testament that contains their stories.
Table 1 (repeated)
The Literary Structure of Matthew 1–2
Related Old Testament Story
Tamar (Genesis 38)
Rahab (Joshua 2–6)
Ruth (Book of Ruth)
Bathsheba (2 Samuel 11)
Mary = Miriam (Numbers 12–14)
Table 5 illustrates the kind of comparison that lies at the heart of the midrash technique Matthew used to add depth to his lean account about Jesus.
A Clue to a Conflict between Mary & Joseph
Problem with Moses’ wife (12:1)
Problem with Joseph’s wife*
God speaks to Moses (12:2)
God speaks to Joseph (2:19–20)
Moses a humble man (12:3)
Joseph a humble man*
Three called out (12:4)
Three called out (2:19–20)
God deals with Miriam (12:5–10)
God deals with Mary*
Journey continues (12:15)
Journey continues (2:21)
Report about the land (13:26–33)
Report about the land (2:22)
God directs new path (14:25)
God directs new path (2:22)
Joshua set apart (14:30)
Jesus set apart (2:23)
*Implied by the parallel passages in Numbers.
 Raymond E. Brown, The Birth of the Messiah (New York: Doubleday, 1979) 465.
 I am downplaying Aaron’s rebellion for clarity.
Every generation has its pet phrases to express things. When I was growing up, the word “cool” described just about anything good. With the proper voice inflection and context, you can make phrases like that mean anything you want.
Teenagers regularly create such new expressions, but adults can also get in on the action. In conversations among men, and especially older businessmen, someone will, at appropriate points, mention “the bottom line”.
The bottom line gets its meaning from the world of accounting. When you get your bank statement, a little box on the page tells you the current balance; that’s the bottom line. By extension this phrase comes to mean the outcome, the summary or the end result.
Our problem is that we can’t usually know what the bottom line of our decisions is going to be. What do we do then? In fact, we must decide some of the most important issues of our lives without knowing the bottom line. In choosing a marriage partner, a career, a home, and many other things, we must make a choice without knowing the eventual outcome.
These uncertainties about personal decisions are compounded by other factors far beyond our control. Terrorism, crime, and economic crisis spread their fears into the lives of almost every American. Faraway events— tsunamis, earthquakes, political turmoil in the Arab world — can disrupt our whole culture.
In such an atmosphere I find it comforting to know that behind the scenes God rules as King over all. To know that my allegiance to Jesus Christ makes me a part of his kingdom and affords me his protective care helps to calm me in the midst of many chilling threats.
Is there any evidence of this principle at work after the birth of Jesus? Oh yes!
Haunting Similarities in Jericho
By intentionally including the names of five women in the genealogy of Jesus, Matthew hints at Old Testament stories that relate to Jesus’ birth (see Table 1 in the Appendix to chapter 1). Using these stories for comparison with the story of Jesus and his parents involves an ancient Jewish technique called midrash. Matthew used midrash throughout Matthew chapters 1 and 2 to introduce additional information.
By using the name Rahab, the Canaanite prostitute who hid the Israelite spies in Jericho (Joshua chapters 2 and 6), Matthew informs us of a relationship between her story in the Old Testament and Matthew 2:1–12. This key will help us unlock the historical background for Matthew’s story about the visiting Magi — learned Persians or Babylonians who studied signs — who worship Jesus during the frantic execution of a deadly plot by King Herod to kill him.
Table 3 — see the Appendix to this chapter —details the many similarities between the story of Rahab and Matthew’s account of the Magi. You may want to refer to this table again after learning more about Herod and the events at the end of his reign.
The parallel story of Rahab helps determine that King Herod was strongly involved with Jericho during the general time of Jesus’ birth and the arrival of the Magi. Ancient Jericho was located fourteen miles east of Jerusalem. By correlating that fact with the history written by Josephus, a first-century Jewish historian, we learn that the Magi appeared during the final few months of Herod’s life and reign. Such timing fits perfectly with the findings of modern scholarship that Jesus was born just a few months before Herod’s death.
Where is the king?
1 After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem 2 and asked, “Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.” (Matthew 2:1–2)
The Greek text of Matthew 2:1 provides a bit more dramatic impact than the translation given above. I would put it like this: “After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, behold Magi from the east appeared in Jerusalem.” The Magi suddenly and unexpectedly burst upon the scene in Jerusalem. I believe they came secretly and quietly, similar to the way that the Israelite spies entered Jericho in the parallel account about Rahab.
The Magi asked a question filled with threat: “Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews?” Herod, who was ruling as a vassal king under the Romans, had not descended from the house of David. New Testament scholar Stanley D. Toussaint says, “Herod, of the Idumaean dynasty, was a usurper.” Rome had put him in power to reward his cooperation in previous wars.
The people hated Herod because he was not a Jew and also because he had killed members of his own family who were Jewish. So the question posed by the Magi meant double trouble for Herod. It reminded the people who heard it that Herod was not a Jew and that another had been born to be king over his own people.
A King Searches for the King
3 When King Herod heard this he was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him. (Matthew 2:3)
To protect his throne, Herod had informers and agents spread throughout Judea. Herod ruled his territory much like a modern dictator, using military force and any other means — such as torture and death — he considered necessary to hold power. Herod was agitated by foreign visitors asking threatening questions about his throne.
I always understood why Herod was disturbed, but it puzzled me that all Jerusalem was alarmed as well. Everything fell into place when I studied the period through the eyes of Josephus (A.D. 37 – c. A.D. 100), the Jewish historian of that era.
When Christ was born during the final months of Herod’s life, the king was seventy years of age. Herod had been stricken with various physical problems — literally from head to foot — and the Jews did not expect him to live much longer. False rumors of his death regularly produced confusion.
During his final illness, Herod became even more ruthless and paranoid. Anything that threatened him increased the chance that people would suddenly be grabbed off of the street, hauled off to one of his fortresses, and tortured for information.
The birth of Jesus brought a fresh threat to Herod’s rule, but there had been others. Over the years, five of Herod’s wives and seven of his sons figured into the struggle to succeed him. Herod dealt with his own family just as ruthlessly as he did with those outside. He murdered one of his wives and three of his sons over the course of his life because he suspected plots.
So, for their own self-protection, the people living in Jerusalem kept themselves aware of anything that might disturb King Herod. Such events could initiate a new reign of terror!
Partly from Matthew’s own lead and partly from the history written by Josephus, we know that Herod spent considerable time in Jericho during the period of time in which Jesus was born and the Magi arrived in Jerusalem. By living in his winter palace at Jericho, Herod could stay about ten degrees warmer during those months than he could in Jerusalem. And he also had access to warm water baths on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. His physicians held out hope that those baths might cure his many ailments.
As Herod lay ill in Jerusalem and Jericho, God unfolded his own movements right under the king’s nose. Herod could never lay a hand on Jesus.
Part of the story’s irony involves Herod exerting all of his energy to find and kill Jesus, while the Lord casually brought the Magi into the capital city and on to worship Jesus without Herod being able to stop it. Jesus and his parents enjoyed complete safety in the midst of danger because of the Lord’s hidden rule.
Herod’s Searching Questions
4 When he had called together all the people’s chief priests and teachers of the law, he asked them where the Messiah was to be born. 5 “In Bethlehem in Judea,” they replied, “for this is what the prophet has written: 6 “‘But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for out of you will come a ruler who will shepherd my people Israel.’” (Matthew 2:4–6)
Herod summoned the Jewish religious leaders — in either Jerusalem or Jericho — and kept on pressing them for information about the birthplace of the Messiah. From the Scriptures they informed him rightly that the Messiah was to be born in Bethlehem. Even with this accurate word, Herod could not alter the bottom line.
The material quoted by the experts from the Old Testament actually comes from two different places. The name Bethlehem comes from Micah 5:2, while the closing statement about Jesus, saying he “will shepherd my people Israel,” comes from 1 Chronicles 11:2.
In both Old Testament contexts, the immediately preceding verses have a message relevant to the passage in Matthew. Micah spoke of a walled city against which a siege is laid and in which a ruler dies (Micah 5:1) — quite reminiscent of the Jericho story (Joshua 2 and 6). As we will see, Herod, like the ancient king of Jericho, will also die in Jericho while trying to oppose God.
Similarly, 1 Chronicles 10:14 tells how the Lord put Saul the murderous king to death and turned the kingdom over to David. Just as Saul often tried to kill David and prevent him from becoming king of Israel, so Herod tried to kill the son of David, Jesus, the coming King.
Matthew is extensively using the comparative techniques of midrash to add detail from these stories.
An Audience with a King
7 Then Herod called the Magi secretly and found out from them the exact time the star had appeared. 8 He sent them to Bethlehem and said, “Go and search carefully for the child. As soon as you find him, report to me, so that I too may go and worship him.” (Matthew 2:7–8)
Herod next summoned the Magi secretly, either in Jerusalem or Jericho. He took tremendous pains to extract precise information from them.
Undoubtedly, Herod would have worshiped Jesus with the point of a knife if only he could. Herod hoped to turn the Magi to his own purposes through their zeal to find Jesus.
The “Star” Leads the Way
9 After they had heard the king, they went on their way, and the star they had seen when it rose went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was. 10 When they saw the star, they were overjoyed. (Matthew 2:9–10)
The Magi could not know for sure that Bethlehem was their destination. They were relying on God’s guidance to bring them to the right place. When the supernatural light appeared to them once again, they experienced a joy verging on ecstasy.
Contrary to what you have heard, the “star” that guided the Magi was not a star in the night sky. This shining light guided them in such a specific way that it must have been a more earthbound supernatural light that guided them to their destination. Matthew tells us that the light “went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was” (Matt. 2:9).
New Testament scholar Craig Keener says, “The description of God’s leading the Magi by a moving, supernatural sign may recall how God led his own people by the fire and cloud in the wilderness (Exod. 13:21–22).”
Conduct a simple experiment for yourself. Go out tonight, look into the sky to pick out a star, and then ask yourself over which house that star is standing. You will quickly realize that a normal star could not guide anyone to a specific location. In my city, a normal star positioned near the horizon could be considered to stand over thousands of houses on a line toward the horizon.
Further, such a star could as easily have guided King Herod’s agents as it did those eastern wise men. Extensive efforts to relate this supernatural light to conjunctions of planets, comets, and other astronomical objects all amount to misguided effort. The “star” was a guiding miracle of God, given to a select group of men so that the Lord could carry out his plans in the midst of deep danger.
Jewish shepherds first bowed down to the newborn Jesus on the night of his birth. Much later — perhaps as much as 45 days — the Gentile wise men came to worship. It is amusing that while Herod is called king many times in the course of this passage, no one bows down to him! Only Jesus receives honor and worship. Matthew indirectly makes clear that Jesus is the real king, not Herod.
Just as the spies did not go back to Joshua’s army by the same route after scouting Jericho (Joshua 2:15–24), so also the Magi returned to their own country by another path. They avoided returning to Herod, and thus they completed the God-given mission undertaken with Herod’s full knowledge. Under God’s guiding hand, Herod proved powerless to stop them or to use them for his own purposes. God wrote the bottom line!
How It All Fits Together
Now we are ready to weave Matthew’s account together with secular history in an attempt to reconstruct the events surrounding Jesus’ birth. (To examine this information in table form, see Table 4 in the Appendix to this chapter.)
In December, 5 B.C., Mary gave birth to Jesus in Bethlehem, just five miles south of Jerusalem. Angels and shepherds worshiped him. Forty days after his birth, Jesus was dedicated by his faithful parents at the temple in Jerusalem.
With disturbing suddenness, the Magi arrived in Jerusalem. They began quietly asking questions about the one who had been born king of the Jews. Herod’s many agents soon carried word to him and greatly disturbed his suspicious mind. All Jerusalem feared the consequences.
Because of his illness, Herod first summoned the religious leaders to his bedside — in Jerusalem or Jericho — to reveal to him the location where the Messiah of the Jews would be born. Next he secretly summoned the Magi to reveal all they knew (Matt. 2:7). Then he sent the Magi to find Jesus and report back to him.
The Magi, guided by the supernatural light, found Jesus at a certain “house” (Matt. 2:11) and worshiped him. Then they departed without returning to Herod because God had warned them not to.
In response to another dramatic warning from the Lord, Mary, Joseph, and Jesus fled to Egypt (Matt. 2:13). This timely warning spared them from Herod’s own order that the children near Bethlehem be put to death. Herod had become enraged when he learned that the Magi had eluded him and ordered the death of Bethlehem’s youngest children (Matt. 2:16) — thought to be about twenty in number.
As word spread that Herod’s illness was entering its last stages, his opponents in Jerusalem became more bold. Herod had erected a golden eagle on the temple in violation of Jewish law. Suddenly a rumor circulated that the king had died. Buoyed by this news, two men named Judas and Matthias incited a crowd to tear down the golden eagle.
But the rumor proved false, and temple troops managed to seize forty of the men and take them before the ailing king. Herod sent them to Jericho for trial and punishment.
By this time, Herod’s illness was growing worse, and the mineral baths near the Dead Sea were not helping. Herod’s son Antipater, who was in prison in the winter palace at Jericho, heard an outcry when his father attempted to kill himself with a paring knife. Antipater celebrated, and that act cost him his life because his father’s suicide attempt had been stopped!
Five days later, the ruthless, death-dealing Herod died in Jericho. Everyone rejoiced!
A Backward Glance
In the midst of an evil, corrupt kingdom, God sent a defenseless family and helpless baby to face many uncertainties and real dangers. But God protected them through it all, fulfilled the prophecies about Jesus’ birth and carried out his plan for the family’s escape without Herod being able to stop it.
That gives me tremendous hope when I run into the threats and dangers we all face in our own lives. Through faith in Jesus Christ, we also belong to God’s family, and he can write the bottom line for us too.
Applying the Truth to Life
Use the following ideas to allow the principles from this story to change your own life:
1. God’s oversight of our world is a reality often hidden from our view by the clamor and tension of current world events. Too often we fearfully focus our attention on the news media and forget God. He has the power and authority to intervene at any level, including the personal circumstances of this world’s most wicked rulers. I think these facts should lead you to take the following steps:
Pray for God’s guidance for your governing officials.
Pray that God will oppose the power of evil rulers.
Pray for the Lord’s protective care over your own household.
2. Clearly, the obedience of the Magi and Joseph to God’s command spared them from death. Those who respond to the King of heaven and earth are shielded from much of the pain and sorrow that sin brings upon our world. How about you?
Do you know God’s revealed will, the Scriptures, so that you know how to respond to life-situations that you face?
Do you see yourself as one who generally obeys God’s principles for living?
Are you growing wiser and more responsive to God as each year fades into another?
3. What important situations are you facing right now whose outcome you can’t see?
How do you feel about the uncertainty?
What involvement do you think God could have in your circumstances?
A Final Word
I generally don’t take risks unless compelled to. So, it still baffles me that before leaving for Dallas Theological Seminary I quit a very secure job without knowing whether the Seminary would accept me. To do otherwise would have delayed my application for two more years. It felt funny to burn my bridges behind me without having a clear path ahead. The bottom line lay far beyond my control.
In such times of uncertainty, God’s hidden rule over my life helps to chase away anxiety. I know that he can totally control the bottom line. Just as he protected Jesus and his parents from Herod’s evil schemes, so he can shield me in hidden but powerful ways. That knowledge helps me to take necessary risks and to make choices.
The assurance of God’s hidden rule will comfort you, even when you can’t see the bottom line!
Coming next week . . .
In Chapter 3 (next week) we learn that Mary, the mother of Jesus, experienced great stress and even exhibited disobedience due to the dangers directed toward her family.
Appendix to Chapter 2
Table 3 illustrates the kind of comparison that lies at the heart of the midrash technique Matthew used to add depth to his brief account about Jesus.
When Theodore Roosevelt (“TR”) was a child, his health was so bad that his father had to spend most weekends taking TR to upstate New York to relieve frequent asthma attacks. Such infirmity would have crushed the spirit of many children, but young Theodore began to embrace a life full of rigorous physical challenge and discipline.
As a result, TR became one of the most energetic figures in the world. Indeed, he once spoke for ninety minutes at a political rally after being shot in the side! Defying expectations, what seemed at first to be a health disaster had propelled his life to great heights.
The apostle Matthew used this same pattern — defeat transformed into victory — to describe Christ’s birth in the first Gospel. When Mary, the mother of Jesus, was found to be pregnant, her intended husband Joseph hit bottom. We will see how God turned Joseph’s apparent defeat into victory.
A vital clue to Matthew’s thinking
Before we get into the story of Jesus’ birth, we need to consider how Matthew tells his story. Biblical genealogies may seem boring, yet buried within the Messiah’s genealogy in the Gospel of Matthew lies a set of vital clues to the literary structure for his account of our Lord’s birth. Matthew signaled his intentions by doing something unusual: he included the names of fivewomen in the genealogy of Christ.
To include women in the genealogy deviated from common practice. Luke mentioned only one woman, Mary, in his genealogy, and did it only to make clear that Joseph had no biological role in Jesus’ birth. Matthew oddly mentions Tamar (1:3), Rahab (1:5), Ruth (1:5), Bathsheba — mentioned as “Uriah’s wife” (1:6), the woman who had the adulterous affair with King David — and Mary (1:16).
In chapters 1–3 of this book we will see how these women’s names shine fresh light on the birth and early life of Jesus. The key to understanding what Matthew is doing lies in learning how he uses a Jewish teaching technique known as midrash — from a Hebrew word that means to study or investigate — to add meaning to his brief narrative. To understand Matthew’s story requires several detours to related stories in the Old Testament for comparison.
When you read Matthew’s first two chapters, you find that he wrote a very lean narrative. He provides few details about the momentous events he describes. But Matthew cleverly brings additional material to bear in two ways: 1) by quoting from the Old Testament and 2) by drawing attention to several Old Testament stories havingintentional similarities to the story of Jesus. That second technique is midrash.
Far from being an enigma, the women’s names act as signposts toward meaning. Table 1 in the Appendix to this chapter shows how Matthew supplemented certain portions of his narrative with the stories of five women from the Old Testament.
As we consider Christ’s birth, we will follow Matthew’s intentional lead by contrasting the story of Mary and Joseph with the story of Tamar (Matt. 1:3) and her father-in-law Judah from Genesis 38. Tamar is the first woman Matthew named, and so her story adds the first supplemental material to the story of Jesus’ birth. From it we learn more about Joseph’s struggle over the pregnancy of Mary.
Broken promises and a crisis in disguise
The story of Judah and Tamar, who are in the royal line of Christ, contrasts sharply with that of Joseph and Mary because Judah and Tamar did not live as righteous people ought to live. See Table 2 in the Appendix to this chapter for a detailed comparison of their stories with Bible references included.
Judah, the son of the patriarch Jacob, was harmed by Tamar after breaking a pledge to her that she would marry one of his sons. Tamar got her revenge by disguising herself as a prostitute and taking an unannounced trip to seduce Judah, who was on a journey. Worse still, she became pregnant! To Judah’s great shame, his sin was exposed. This was Judah’s crisis, and he threatened Tamar with death.
It’s not a pretty story! The saga of Judah and Tamar reeks with struggle, intrigue, and sin. But, amazingly enough, God used this reversal in Judah’s life to shape him into a better person. In Genesis 44, Judah offered his own life to save his younger brother’s life (Gen. 44:27–34).
It is striking that Matthew intentionally refers to this story to highlight Joseph’s crisis, but he clearly does. Both stories involve men facing crises that relate to the birth of the Messiah; both Tamar and Mary are part of the biological line of Jesus. Judah was an oath-breaker and a man willing to kill. How will Judah compare with Joseph? We will unpack Matthew’s midrash — a form of comparison — and find out. [See Appendix 1 below for details of this comparison.]
In both accounts God turns defeat into eventual victory. The individual crises of Judah and Joseph were blessings in disguise.
The unwanted child — Jesus
18 This is how the birth of Jesus the Messiah came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be pregnant through the Holy Spirit. 19 Because Joseph her husband was faithful to the law, and yet did not want to expose her to public disgrace, he had in mind to divorce her quietly. (Matthew 1:18–19)
Clearly, Joseph learned about Mary’s pregnancy before hearing the facts of the matter from her. At this point, Matthew leaves much unsaid, but we can get insight by considering Luke’s account (Luke 1:26–56). God sent an angel to inform Mary of her impending pregnancy, and she immediately departed to visit her kinswoman Elizabeth in the hill country of Judah.
Mary’s story resembles Tamar’s story in several respects. First of all, Mary’s unannounced journey led to a conflict. She returned after three months of pregnancy to await her marriage in her father’s house (like Tamar). Her pregnancy then became known, and the crisis hit Joseph with full force. Remember that Joseph had never read Matthew chapter 1!
How would you have felt if you were Joseph? He was a righteous young descendant of David who had selected a godly young woman from among his people. After a three-month journey to Judah, his wife-to-be was pregnant, and he knew the child was not his own. What would you have thought? Surely any of us would have drawn the same conclusion that Joseph did.
Joseph’s dreams of the life he would live with this woman he deeply loved were instantly shattered. His life hit rock bottom, and he himself was probably subjected to ridicule due to Mary’s condition. Feel with Joseph the pain of that terrible moment. Just as Judah mistook Tamar for a common prostitute, Joseph also misjudged Mary as sexually unfaithful. The comparison of the two related stories confirms this conclusion about Joseph even though Matthew does not say it outright. That’s how midrash works.
Joseph demonstrated a compassion for Mary that his counterpart Judah didn’t show for Tamar; Joseph tried to prevent any harm from coming to Mary. The Jews regarded infidelity during engagement as seriously as they did after marriage. As an apparent adulteress, Mary could have received the death penalty, but Joseph took steps to quietly break the engagement.
On the surface Joseph’s story is filled with wrongdoing, tragedy, and defeat, but behind it all stands God, who transforms defeat into victory. He was using Mary and Joseph to accomplish a profound act in bringing salvation to Israel and the world. But the world continually misunderstands what God is doing.
A blessing in disguise
20 But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, “Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. 21 She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.” 22 All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: 23 “The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel” (which means “God with us”). (Matthew 1:20–23)
In the midst of disaster, God intervened decisively with Joseph and Mary. The angel urged Joseph to take Mary home as his wife and not to fear the consequences. That action amounted to a legal, public claim that Mary was his wife, in spite of the fact that she was three months pregnant!
The surrounding community doubtless misunderstood this action. Even though Joseph and Mary would have wanted to maintain a discreet silence, pregnancy cannot be hidden after a certain point. Stories about them were probably already circulating within Nazareth. The angel quieted Joseph’s baseless fears by revealing that Mary’s child had been conceived by the miraculous, creative act of the Holy Spirit.
After predicting the birth of a son, the angel commanded Joseph to name the boy Jesus — a name filled with profound meaning. It is derived from the Hebrew name Yeshua, which means “the Lord saves.” This name reveals the first part of what Jesus came to do; he came to deliver his people from their sins.
Then Matthew explains another name Jesus was given, that reveals another part of his mission: “‘they will call him Immanuel’ (which means ‘God with us’)” (Matt. 1:23).
When we think of Jesus delivering us from our sins, we usually visualize it as happening someday. Certainly Jesus will save us from divine judgment on that day, but we fall short of understanding if we don’t realize that he also came to deliver us from our sins right now!
Immanuel, which means “God with us,” brings out this present aspect. Jesus continually transforms the defeats, struggles, and hardships of our lives into ultimate victory. Jesus is not the God-whom-we-will-see-someday or the God-way-off-there-somewhere; he is God-with-us-right-now!
We may see ourselves as more like Judah than like Joseph, but that doesn’t mean that Jesus will abandon us. His very name tells us he won’t do that. Jesus Christ came into our world not only to resolve our sin problem, but also to transform our current defeats into ultimate victory.
A response of faith
24 When Joseph woke up, he did what the angel of the Lord had commanded him and took Mary home as his wife. 25 But he did not consummate their marriage until she gave birth to a son. And he gave him the name Jesus. (Matthew 1:24–25)
Joseph placed himself squarely within the camp of those who willingly respond to the Lord’s revelation. He showed a readiness to take whatever risks would be involved in receiving Mary and her child into his home. Joseph’s decision cleared Mary from suspicion.
By naming the boy, Joseph legally claimed Jesus as his own — not biologically, but legally. His action both cleared Mary of any wrongdoing and put the responsibility for Mary’s pregnancy squarely on his own shoulders. Demonstrating his righteousness, Joseph followed the Lord’s directives to the letter, trusting him to turn defeat into something good.
A backward glance
In thinking back over the two contrasting stories, we find two very different couples. God had to teach Judah and Tamar the fundamentals of right and wrong. Their story betrays little concern about what God wanted in their lives; their own self-concern was paramount. They belonged in spiritual kindergarten learning basic lessons about life. Still, God used them as part of the lineage of his divine Son.
In the other case, Joseph and Mary most certainly struggled, but their goal was to please God. Both were trying to serve him in baffling circumstances. Through Joseph and Mary, the Father brought about the culmination of his salvation plan.
God’s transforming power permeates both episodes and the lives of all involved. In both cases, defeat turned out to be a blessing in disguise.
Lessons for our generation
Perhaps this has been a year of struggle in your life, as it has in mine. Two unexpected operations and a trip to the emergency room have provided more excitement than I wanted. There is no doubt that such experiences are unpleasant. But when we become adopted members of God’s family through faith in Jesus Christ, defeat takes on a promising new element.
1. The Lord wants to use our pain and misfortune to bring about strength, growth, and blessing. To accomplish that purpose, he will get personally involved in our lives. To confirm this in the Bible, see Genesis 50:20; Romans 5:3–5; 8:28; and 1 Peter 2:10–20. Use the following questions to evaluate your own life.
Am I so absorbed with my adversity that I have lost sight of God’s intention to bring blessing?
What has the Lord taught me, or what does he want me to learn from my struggles?
In what ways has God used misfortune in my life to bring change and shape my outlook about myself and others?
Judah couldn’t learn very much about his immoral ways until he suffered a real crisis in his life. He wouldn’t face up to his Canaanite associations, casual fornication, covenant-breaking, and vengeful anger until God brought him up short.
Long ago I felt a certain contempt for people who had personal problems. Inwardly, I put the blame on them. But when I found out that what happened to them could also happen to me, it changed me profoundly. Such an experience allowed me to bring to others the comfort that God brought me in my crisis (see 2 Corinthians chapter 1).
2. In spite of all their sin, the Lord used Judah and Tamar to help accomplish salvation for a lost world. Don’t you feel a bit surprised that the Lord would use people like them as part of the royal line of Jesus Christ?
But that fact is tremendous! It shows us that God can, and will, use believers of all maturity levels to bring about his purposes. The frailty and weakness of man does not hinder the power of God in cutting through obstacles to fulfill his promises. You may consider yourself a spiritual failure. You may be a person like Judah who has been running on the wrong side of the tracks for quite a while, but repentance and confession can change that. The Lord can still use you!
In light of that, can you personally affirm the following statement? God will use me with all my flaws to help carry out his purpose for those around me.
Consider the other side of things for a moment. In the story of Joseph and Mary, God clearly demonstrates his intention to bring even greater blessings into the lives of men and women seeking to live a godly life.
Are you willing to make it your goal to move even closer to the Lord in the days to come?
A final word
My unexpected trip to the emergency room was no picnic, but it led to the “accidental” discovery of a separate medical problem. As a result, my first surgical operation for the year removed a defect that could have threatened my life!
My trip to the ER has proved to be a blessing in disguise. God used it to bring about an important change that might never have happened without the crisis. This experience has taught me that Jesus really lives up to the name Immanuel, “God with us.” Where he is involved, even a crisis bears the promise of grace. Even adversity can be a blessing in disguise.
Coming next week . . .
In Chapter 2 we will see how the Father protected the newborn Jesus from the murderous Herod, guided the Magi to worship Jesus, and then got the family to safety in Egypt.
Appendix to Chapter 1
Table 1 shows the women mentioned in Matthew’s genealogy and the corresponding material in the Old Testament that contains their stories.
The Literary Structure of Matthew 1–2
Related Old Testament Story
Tamar (Genesis 38)
Rahab (Joshua 2–6)
Ruth (Book of Ruth)
Bathsheba (2 Samuel 11)
Mary = Miriam (Numbers 12–14)
Table 2 illustrates the kind of comparison that lies at the heart of the midrash technique Matthew used to add background to his brief account about Jesus.
Matthew 7:15–20 “Watch out for false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are voracious wolves. 16 You will recognize them by their fruit. Grapes are not gathered from thorns or figs from thistles, are they? 17 In the same way, every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears bad fruit. 18 A good tree is not able to bear bad fruit, nor a bad tree to bear good fruit. 19 Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. 20 So then, you will recognize them by their fruit.” (NET Bible)
Note: any Bible reference containing only a chapter number and verse number is understood to be in the Gospel of Matthew.
Many members of the Palm Beach Country Club had to lobby to get Bernard Madoff to take their money for investment. His marketing strategy was to play hard to get. That worked really well along with the bogus profit statements received by those members he had already taken as clients.
Unfortunately, the only information the clients saw was paper reports from Madoff. They never tried to inspect their own stock certificates or visit the accounting office. Since there were no real stock purchases, there were no stock certificates and no need for an accounting office!
A man selling false profits is one thing, but false claims about knowing God are even worse.
As we begin this section, keep in mind R.T. France’s insight that these false prophets (7:15) are outsiders (i.e. unbelievers) pretending to be insiders. Once again, Jesus gives just one command — watch out for false prophets (7:15a) — followed by an explanation (7:15b–20).
Since prophets are not part of our landscape, the idea of false prophets is a bit elusive. In Matthew’s Gospel (24:11 and 24:24), false prophets mislead or deceive even true disciples. Luke 6:26 tells us that false prophets are likely to be widely praised. Peter said the false prophets would introduce “destructive heresies, even to the point of denying the Master who bought them” (2 Pet. 2:1).
From these references, it seems reasonable to assume that false prophets taught misleading theology, heresies, and even denied important things about Jesus. John heard Jesus’ words, and he warned us to test for false prophets by careful examination (1 John 4:1).
Using metaphorical language, Jesus warns that the false prophets are actually predators (voracious wolves, 7:15) disguised as prey (sheep). Then he offers a way to detect these pretenders. In doing so, Jesus switches metaphors to that of fruit-bearing plants and their fruit.
R.T. France tells us that the basic principle of the fruits-test is that “trees produce only the kind of fruit which reflects their basic character, good or bad” (7:17–18). R.T. France adds that the fruit Jesus wants is the life and loyalty that God expects of his people; this is the righteousness Jesus has been describing, even though the word is not used.
Evaluating fruitfulness requires the restrained but necessary judgment that Jesus described in 7:1–6. Jesus used this standard of fruitfulness when he condemned the scribes and Pharisees in Matthew 23:1–36. There Jesus exhorts the people to obey what the Pharisees and scribes taught from Moses —meaning the Law — but not to imitate them because they did not practice what they taught (23:3)!
What happens to the trees that do not produce good fruit? Jesus says they are thrown into the fire (7:19). That is the ultimate fate of outsiders pretending to be insiders.
Those who have put their faith in Jesus Christ will not fail the test of fruitfulness. After explaining how God saved us by “his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus” (Eph. 2:7), Paul explains that we have “been created in Christ Jesus for good works that God prepared beforehand that we may do them” (Eph. 2:10). The Holy Spirit enables us to do all that God wants.
The real thing
The truth is that over a period of time it is not that difficult to see the Holy Spirit at work in someone’s life. You will see or learn about acts of kindness, sacrificial service, and devotion to building up the church. Words are harder to weigh than deeds, but we always have the Bible to provide the truth against which teaching can be tested.
Remember Jesus’ warning! Not all allegedly-Christian teaching is true to God’s Word, even when you see it on the Internet, hear it on the radio or read it in a book. To evaluate a prophet, you need to see their life.
Matthew 7:12 “In everything, treat others as you would want them to treat you, for this fulfills the law and the prophets.” (NET Bible)
Note: any Bible reference containing only a chapter number and verse number is understood to be in the Gospel of Matthew.
Summarizing the Law
The sign on the auto dealer’s wall said, “We operate this business according to the Golden Rule.” I recall thinking skeptically, “I wonder if that rule reads ‘The one who has the gold makes the rules.’”
Which of these two golden rules is the one you honor? Which one did Jesus teach?
We have reached a watershed point in the Sermon on the Mount. Today’s verse summarizes “the ethics of discipleship” that Jesus has presented up to this point. Jesus has described the righteousness that exceeds that taught by the scribes and Pharisees (5:20), and now he sums it up by this variant of the law of love for your neighbor.
Before discussing the details of the verse, I will compare two translations of it.
(NET) “In everything, treat others as you would want them to treat you, for this fulfills the law and the prophets.” [italics added] NIV 2011 is similar to NET Bible.
(HCSB) “Therefore, whatever you want others to do for you, do also the same for them– this is the Law and the Prophets.” [italics added]
Of the two translations, HCSB is closer to the Greek text of Matthew 7:12. Note carefully that HCSB begins with a disciple thinking about how they wish to be treated by others. In other words, the disciple first imagines a scenario about how they would prefer to be treated in the future. Only then does the focus turn to using that analysis to determine how to treat others. I want to be shown love, and so I show love to others.
We all know by experience that our showing love in human relationships does not always result in getting love in return. In spite of that fact, Jesus places his disciples under obligation to lead off with love. There is no bail-out point at which we get to switch tactics and start hating the other person. Recall that we have already been commanded to love our enemies (5:44).
According to R.T. France, “The common description of this saying as the ‘Golden Rule’ is traditionally traced to the Roman Emperor Alexander Severus (A.D. 222–35), who, though not a Christian, was reputedly so impressed by the comprehensiveness of this maxim of Jesus as a guide to good living that he had it inscribed in gold on the wall of his chamber.”
HCSB is again more literal at the end of the verse by saying “this is the Law and the Prophets,” while NET leans a bit farther out to say “this fulfills the law and the prophets.”
The point is, if you want to be Jesus’ disciple, obeying this command is the place to start.
Seeking the minimum
Of course, the problem is that some Christians want to see the Golden Rule as the end of what Jesus requires of them. If you ask such a person if they are a Christian, they may say, “I try to live by the Golden Rule.” That probably means they also attend church on Easter but not otherwise!
The world has tried to distort the teaching of Jesus by replacing it with a cleverly-worded alternative: Do unto others before they do unto you! To the contrary, Jesus wants us to be loving and merciful, but we know that he did it for us first!
“But ‘when the kindness of God our Savior and his love for mankind appeared, he saved us not by works of righteousness that we have done but on the basis of his mercy, through the washing of the new birth and the renewing of the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us in full measure through Jesus Christ our Savior.’” (Tit. 3:4–6)
Matthew 7:6 “Do not give what is holy to dogs or throw your pearls before pigs; otherwise they will trample them under their feet and turn around and tear you to pieces.” (NET Bible)
Identifying pigs and dogs
For those trained in modern techniques of personal evangelism, it is tempting to press the presentation of the gospel even when the resistance is extreme. For a disciple confronted with entrenched refusal, Jesus has two words: “Do not . . .”
When you review commentaries on the meaning of Matthew 7:6, such words as cryptic and enigmatic often occur. However, analysis of the context and information about cultural background will combine to solve the mystery.
The verse is most easily understood as a balancing statement to what has been said in 7:1-5. David Turner makes the telling observation that Jesus’ disciples must not be judgmental — as described in 7:1-5 — “but neither must they be oblivious to genuinely evil people.”
I hope it is obvious to you that Jesus uses the words dogs and pigs to refer to certain people. Yes indeed, he is making a negative judgment about them even after the warning against harsh judgmentalism! While the disciples must guard against adopting the judgmental attitude of the Pharisees toward others, they must also avoid the other extreme of being naďve. As in so many matters, there are two cliffs where one may fall down, and the wise path for a disciple lies between the two. Jesus is implicitly teaching that his disciples must make the judgmental identification of dogs and pigs when necessary for advancing the gospel of the kingdom.
As to the cultural background of this verse, the Old Testament has hundreds of examples where the literary pattern A-B-B-A is used to make a point with literary style. Here is how Matthew 7:6 looks when arranged that way:
A: Do not give what is holy to dogs
B: or throw your pearls before pigs
B: otherwise they will trample them under their feet
A: and turn and tear you to pieces.
So, in a word order more natural to a 21st-century American, Matthew 7:6 would say: “Do not give what is holy to dogs; otherwise they will turn and tear you to pieces. Do not throw your pearls before pigs; otherwise they will trample them under their feet.” Such a rewriting takes away the literary pattern that would have been quickly decoded by Jesus’ audience.
Turner informs us that dogs were generally wild scavengers in the first century, and pigs were unclean animals according to the law. He adds, “Their use here is as striking metaphors of those who contemptuously and viciously reject the message of the kingdom.”
In our tolerance-ridden times you might doubt that such vicious (human) dogs were a real danger to Jesus and his disciples. Think again! Luke 4:16-30 tells what happened when Jesus preached in the synagogue at Nazareth, his hometown. Because Jesus refused to work miracles for them, the people became so enraged that “they got up, forced him out of the town, and brought him to the brow of the hill on which their town was built, so that they could throw him down the cliff” (Luke 4:29). Only then did they see a miracle, when “he passed through the crowd and went on his way” (Luke 4:30). Notice carefully that he did not remain in Nazareth to press the matter further.
What a Savior!
Any swine or canines in your life?
If you never let on that you are a Christian, then you will probably never encounter a dog. But if you live as a disciple of Jesus and spread the gospel of the kingdom, then you will eventually get a vicious response. Your task as a disciple is not to strongly condemn such people; instead, provide the gospel in a sensitive and caring way and then let God deal with any hardened hearts.
In sharing the gospel with those in your sphere of influence, remember that you are not responsible for their response to the message so long as you take care to be thoughtful and sensitive in your presentation. The issue must not be you; the issue must be Jesus Christ, the one who died for our sins and rose on the third day. He will handle those who forcefully resist his Word.
 David L. Turner, Matthew, Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, Baker Academic, 2008) 206.