Exposition of Genesis 1-11: Genesis 9:4-7

Genesis 9:4-7

But you must not eat meat with its life (that is, its blood) in it. 5 For your lifeblood I will surely exact punishment, from every living creature I will exact punishment. From each person I will exact punishment for the life of the individual since the man was his relative. 6 Whoever sheds human blood, by other humans must his blood be shed; for in Gods image God has made humankind.
7
But as for you, be fruitful and multiply; increase abundantly on the earth and multiply on it.
(NET Bible)

Matters of life and death

Life is cheap, they say. But they dont say it in heaven!

How will God curb the spread of violence that led him to destroy the original creation? How will justice be done on the earth? Who will be summoned to give an accounting to God for the loss of human life?

In the previous post we considered the general provision God made in allowing the animals for food (Gen. 9:3). Victor Hamilton explains how Gen. 9:3 relates to Gen. 9:4 when he says, The pattern in this verse [9:4] and the preceding one is the same as that of 2:16-17: a generous permission (every tree of the garden, every creeping thing) followed by a single prohibition (of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, flesh together with its lifeblood you shall not eat).[1]

There is an equating here of blood with life that does not resonate with contemporary readers. Perhaps the easiest way to understand this idea is that God is associating the shedding of blood with death. On one hand, this idea emphasizes the sanctity of life, which comes from God.

On another level the equation of death with shedding blood sets up the theology of the entire sacrificial system. Ultimately, Jesus blood was shed on our behalf; that is, he died in our place to pay for our sins (Rom. 5:9; Eph. 1:7).

The explanation above explains why Gen. 4:10 speaks of Abels blood crying out to God from the ground. The personified blood was crying out about Abels death at the hands of Cain.

Genesis 9:5

For your lifeblood I will surely exact punishment, from every living creature I will exact punishment. From each person I will exact punishment for the life of the individual since the man was his relative.

When we are reading the Bible, certain phrases should make us step on the brakes. I will surely exact punishment is certainly one of those phrases! Further, the phrase exact punishment is repeated three times in this verse, heightening its importance. A word study will help.

Word study: require (someones life)

The Hebrew verb darash, used three times in Gen. 9:5 for Gods personal response to someone taking a human life, means: require (someones blood, life).[2] The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament says: Finally, our root is used of divine vengeance on those who take a life. God will diligently seek restitution of a life for a life (Gen. 9:5).[3]

So, NET translates the verb darash three times in Gen. 9:5 as exact punishment. In Genesis 9:5, to exact punishment is to require someones life. The only problem with the NET Bibles translation choice is that the reader may wrongly think that the punishment falls short of death. NIV 2011 says I will demand an accounting, which is an abstraction similar to the NET. The Christian Standard Bible (CSB) translates, I will require the life, which finally sets matters straight. The New Living Translation (NLT) says, I will require the blood … anyone who murders a fellow human must die. That last is a paraphrase, but the meaning is correct.

Kenneth Mathews says, The general rule is that human life when violated, either by animal or fellow human, required the life of the offender.[4]

A second issue in Genesis 9:5 is the translation lifeblood (NET, ESV, NASB, and NIV 2011). You might think that this term translates a single word, but that is not the case. The NET Bible Notes say, Again the [Hebrew] text uses apposition to clarify what kind of blood is being discussed: your blood, [that is] for your life.[5] By apposition the Notes mean that blood and life are nouns which have a grammatical relationship to one another; in this case the relationship is expressed in the following way: your blood . . . for your life.

The result of this analysis is shown by Gordon Wenhams translation of Genesis 9:5, which says: But I shall require your blood for your lives, from the hand of every wild animal I will require it; and from mans hand, from each man his brothers life, I shall require the life of man.[6] Genesis 9:5 makes an intentional reference to Genesis 4 and the murder of Abel. This verse directly implies that Cain was his brothers keeper, and the rest of us are put on notice!

Perhaps you noticed that Wenhams translation used the word brother instead of the NETs relative. All human beings are made in Gods image; there are no exceptions.

Genesis 9:6 (ESV)

Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed, for God made man in his own image.

As usual, the ESV, shown above, sticks closer to Hebrew word order. Wenham says, The tight chiastic formulation (shed, blood, man, man, blood, shed) repeating each word of the first clause in reverse order in the second emphasizes the strict correspondence of punishment to offense.[7]

On the other hand, the NET correctly stands with NLT and CSB among major translations in saying of the slayer by other humans must his blood be shed (NET) rather than by man shall his blood be shed (ESV, NASB, NIV 2011, and RSV).[8] Such details may seem beneath mention except for the fact that this verse forms the primary biblical basis for capital punishment. Details matter in Gods inspired Word!

The one who upholds the dignity of humanity is God; we are made in his image, and he takes that very seriously. God strongly upholds the value of man in spite of mans tendency to rebel and sin. Think about that the next time you hear someone demean a person or make light of human death.

Copyright 2011 by Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.

 


[1] Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1990) 314.

[2] L. Koehler, W. Baumgartner and J. J. Stamm, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (HALOT), translated and edited under the supervision of M. E. J. Richardson. 5 vols. (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1994-2000) darash, require (someones blood, life), q.v.

[3] R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer and Bruce K. Waltke, eds. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, (TWOT) 2 vols. (Chicago: Moody, 1980) darash, require (someones blood, life), q.v.

[4] Kenneth A. Mathews, Genesis 1-11:26, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996) 403.

[5] NET Bible Notes for Genesis 9:5.

[6] Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1-15, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Word Incorporated, 1987) 151.

[7] Wenham, Genesis 1-15, 193.

[8] E. Kautzsch, ed., A.E. Cowley, Gesenius Hebrew Grammar (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1910) 323 ( 109i).



Choosing a Study Bible

Among the most important choices a Christian makes is selecting a Bible translation for daily study. You may be saying, “I thought they were all the same.” No, and that is why you need more information!

To discuss different translations, you will need a key to their abbreviations. The year shown is the year of first publication as a full Bible.

ESV                      English Standard Version (2001)

NET                      New English Translation (1996)

HCSB                   Holman Christian Standard Bible (2004)

NIV                       New International Version (1978)

NASB                   New American Standard Bible (1963)

KJV                      King James Version (1611)

The Crux: What Type of Bible?

The English Bible is found in two forms: translations and paraphrases. First, we will describe paraphrases and then translations.

Bible Paraphrases

One dictionary says a paraphrase is: “A restatement of a text or passage in another form or other words, often to clarify meaning.”[1] Clarity is certainly the main goal of a Bible paraphrase, but you have to understand the original text correctly in order to paraphrase it. If everyone saw the same original meaning in a Bible verse, there would be no need for commentaries; there are tens of thousands of them!

We usually want things that are easier to understand, so what is the limitation of a paraphrase? New Testament scholar Daniel Wallace says, “If the translator’s interpretation is correct, it can only clarify the meaning of the text; if it is incorrect, then it can only clarify the interpretation of the translator!”[2] If the translator’s interpretation is correct, you get a paraphrase of God’s Word; if not, you get a paraphrase of the translator’s word.

One of the most popular paraphrases is The Living Bible. It first appeared in 1971 as the literary effort of Kenneth N. Taylor. Taylor initially wrote The Living Bible for his children, never intending it for serious study, yet it achieved great popularity.[3]

Another widely distributed paraphrase is The Message, the effort of Eugene H. Peterson. The full Bible as paraphrased by The Message became available in 2002. One notable scholar considers The Message even freer than a paraphrase, calling it devotional literature.

So, the two most popular paraphrases are each the product of one man. Further, we note that some question exists as to when clarification becomes invention. Compare these paraphrases with a translation for one of Jesus’ statements in the Sermon on the Mount:

PARAPHRASE: Matthew 5:3 (The Message) “You’re blessed when you’re at the end of your rope. With less of you there is more of God and his rule.”

PARAPHRASE: Matthew 5:3 (The Living Bible) “Humble men are very fortunate,” he told them, “for the Kingdom of Heaven is given to them.”

TRANSLATION: Matthew 5:3 (English Standard Version) “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.”

You will notice immediately that the two paraphrases are quite different. If you had not been told they were paraphrasing the same verse, you might have guessed otherwise. Paraphrases have their uses, but serious Bible study is not one of them. You need an accurate Bible translation.

Bible Translations

Here is a reasonable definition: “Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text, likewise called a ‘translation,’ that communicates the same message in another language.”[4] In our case the Bible was recorded in Greek (New Testament) and Hebrew (Old Testament), with a few chapters in Aramaic (Old Testament). Producing an equivalent text in English is what results in our Bible translations.

We all want a Bible that shows fidelity to the original text and clarity in our language because we want to know exactly what God has revealed to us. So, what is the challenge? Wallace says, “Idioms and colloquialisms in a language need to be paraphrased to make sense in another language.”[5] In addition, some translations attempt to distinguish themselves by incorporating a measure of paraphrase to enhance readability. The degree to which this paraphrasing is done leads to some debate.

The most famous translation of all time is the King James Version of 1611, a product of scholars from Oxford and Cambridge. Due to the passage of time and the discovery of thousands of additional biblical manuscripts, the need arose for fresh translations; all languages change over time. The English Standard Version (2001) is a successor in the tradition of the King James Version. Other notable translations include the NET Bible (1996), the New International Version (1978 and 2011), the Holman Christian Standard Bible (2004), and the New American Standard Bible (1963). We have already mentioned the New Living Translation (1996).

Because of their greater fidelity to the biblical text, translations are the right tool for a Bible student or growing Christian.

Notes to the Max

Contemporary study Bibles have an amazing amount of information in the notes at the bottom of each page. They usually contain maps, diagrams and charts at various locations.

Since some translations (ESV, KJV or NASB) emphasize transparency to the original text, they do not put much interpretation directly into the translation. For such translations the notes are a great help in bridging the historical and cultural gap between us and biblical times. For example, John 18:28a (ESV) says, “Then they led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the governor’s headquarters.” The ESV Study Bible has a long note to tell you all about the Roman governor’s quarters at Herod’s old palace or a possible alternate location.

By contrast, the NIV says, “Then the Jewish leaders led Jesus from Caiaphas to the palace of the Roman governor” (John 18:28a, NIV 2011, emphasis added). Note the words in italics. The word “Roman” is not in the Greek New Testament here, but it appears in the NIV 2011 translation as a clarification. Similarly, “they” (ESV) has been changed to “the Jewish leaders” (NIV 2011) to make certain you know who took Jesus to the palace, but the words “Jewish leaders” do not occur here in the Greek text. The NIV Study Bible — available at this writing only for NIV 1984 — also has a long note to tell you what is going on in this scene.

In relation to resource materials provided along with the translation, the ESV and NIV study Bibles differ in two significant ways. First, the NIV Study Bible has a concordance about double the size of the one in the ESV Study Bible. On the other hand, the NIV 1984 needs a much bigger concordance since it uses a much greater variety of words to translate individual Greek or Hebrew words, and that makes concordance research more complicated. [Note: A concordance is an alphabetic list of words used in a specific translation matched to a list of the Bible verses where that word occurs. A concordance is essential for doing word studies without special Bible software.]

The second significant difference is that the ESV Study Bible contains a large number of articles (e.g. “The Character of God” and “Marriage and Sexual Morality”) dealing with many subjects at greater length than notes allow. These materials are not replicated in the NIV Study Bible.

For those intrepid few who cannot get enough about the linguistic matters that underlie our English translations, the NET Bible First Edition is a must-have. This Bible has a unique set of Translators’ Notes that justify the translation. These Notes can be technical in relation to original languages, but they are a great help to understanding the original meaning and options for translation. The NET Bible has fine maps but few charts and diagrams and no concordance. Still, it is unique. The NET Bible and all its Notes may be downloaded free at www.Bible.org, and I recommend you do that.

Recommended Study Bibles

I recommend the following study Bibles according to your need:

ESV Study Bible published by Crossway Bibles (2008)

The ESV emphasizes transparency to the original text over clarity in English. The ESV Study Bible has outstanding notes, maps, and concordance along with good articles. It gets my vote as the best general-purpose study Bible available in May 2011.

The NIV Study Bible, Updated Edition published by Zondervan (2008)

The NIV 1984 emphasizes clarity in English, so it has more interpretation in its translated text than either the ESV or the NET Bible. The NIV Study Bible has outstanding notes and maps along with a sizable concordance. It is also a sound choice for a general-purpose study Bible. It seems reasonable to expect that a revision using the NIV 2011 text will be available sometime in 2011. That will be an upgrade!

NET Bible, First Edition [with over 60,932 Notes] published by Biblical Studies Press (2005)

The NET Bible takes a middle position between the NIV and ESV on the balance between transparency to the original text and clarity in English. The NET Bible is highly recommended for those interested in the Translators’ Notes. It also has unique maps based on earth-satellite imaging.  Available at www.Bible.org .

Copyright © 2011 by Barry Applewhite. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from material created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.


[1] “paraphrase.” The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. 22 Nov. 2008. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/paraphrase>.

[2] Daniel B. Wallace, “Choosing a Bible Translation,” Bible Study Magazine (Nov. & Dec., 2008) 24.

[3] More recently the New Living Translation has replaced the earlier paraphrase with a widely accepted translation done by a team of scholars.

[4] “Translation.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Nov 2008, 09:08 UTC. 23 Nov 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Translation&oldid=252537344>.

[5] Wallace, “Choosing a Bible Translation,” 23.

 

Jesus First Miracle: John 2:1-11 (NIV 2011)

Recently I received a question about Jesus first miracle at Cana in Galilee. This passage strikes the casual reader as somewhat unusual. Here is the passage in John 2:1-11 (NIV 2011):

On the third day a wedding took place at Cana in Galilee. Jesus mother was there, 2 and Jesus and his disciples had also been invited to the wedding. 3When the wine was gone, Jesus mother said to him, They have no more wine.
4 Woman, why do you involve me? Jesus replied. My hour has not yet come.
5 His mother said to the servants, Do whatever he tells you.
6 Nearby stood six stone water jars, the kind used by the Jews for ceremonial washing, each holding from twenty to thirty gallons.
7 Jesus said to the servants, Fill the jars with water; so they filled them to the brim.
8 Then he told them, Now draw some out and take it to the master of the banquet.
They did so, 9 and the master of the banquet tasted the water that had been turned into wine. He did not realize where it had come from, though the servants who had drawn the water knew. Then he called the bridegroom aside 10 and said, Everyone brings out the choice wine first and then the cheaper wine after the guests have had too much to drink; but you have saved the best till now.
11 What Jesus did here in Cana of Galilee was the first of the signs through which he revealed his glory; and his disciples believed in him.

Jesus puts mercy before ritual

Many of the following ideas represent my synthesis of the commentary on this passage by Craig S. Keener [The Gospel of John (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2003) 492-516]. This is currently the best commentary on Johns Gospel and ranks as one of the finest commentaries ever written.

First, this is a story of the problem-solution type. But, since Jesus is the solution to the problem, these events were certain to have major impact. This is the first of the many sign-miracles that John presents to help his readers take the same faith journey the disciples went through. The disciples of Jesus grew in faith through this miracle (John 2:11), but the miracle also begins the process that takes Jesus to his death.

The groom was in danger of a reputation-ending disaster through the lack of sufficient wine at the wedding feast. While there is no evidence that Jesus knew this family well — they probably lived about nine miles from Nazareth — the bride and groom were certainly in need of mercy.

Mary, the mother of Jesus, demonstrated her faith in Jesus by calling on him to solve the problem and also by telling the servants to do whatever Jesus said (John 2:3, 5). The quiet way Jesus works in the situation not only avoids social tragedy but also results in the groom receiving praise (John 2:9-10).

By choosing to change the water meant for Jewish ceremonial washing into wine, Jesus suggests that accepted Jewish ritual was not as important as the social acceptance of the family facing ruin. For Jesus to demonstrate his benevolence was more important than any offence taken by those committed to Pharisaic regulations. Jesus puts mercy before ritual.

The fact that Jesus created about 120-150 gallons of fine wine made it certain that this miracle could not remain under wraps for long. Indeed, the following section, John 2:12-23, demonstrates the ongoing clash in values between Jesus and the religious leaders as well as the growing response of the people to the signs Jesus was doing. In effect, the events at Cana displayed these trends in seed form. [Have no doubt that John is a literary master!]

For those interested in translation comparisons, I have commented elsewhere that the Greek wording of John 2:4 is idiomatic. A raw translation might be: What to me and to you? [NET Bible Notes]. The Greek text shows that Jesus questions the nature of the obligation either he or his mother might have. Strangely enough, only the New Living Translation — generally the king of paraphrase — strives to keep Mary in the picture (thats not our problem). NIV 2011 reduces the joint emphasis on Mary by saying, Woman, why do you involve me? This is a minor point, and, since idioms require paraphrasing, it may only prove that NLT is sometimes better at achieving accuracy in that style than NIV 2011.

Copyright 2011 by Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide.