1 In the first year of Darius son of Xerxes (a Mede by descent), who was made ruler over the Babylonian kingdom — 2 in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, understood from the Scriptures, according to the word of the LORD given to Jeremiah the prophet, that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years. 3 So I turned to the Lord God and pleaded with him in prayer and petition, in fasting, and in sackcloth and ashes. 4 I prayed to the LORD my God and confessed:
Lord, the great and awesome God, who keeps his covenant of love with those who love him and keep his commandments, 5 we have sinned and done wrong. We have been wicked and have rebelled; we have turned away from your commands and laws. 6 We have not listened to your servants the prophets, who spoke in your name to our kings, our princes and our ancestors, and to all the people of the land.
Daniel follows his normal practice of connecting to historical events by providing a date tied to the name of a ruler (verse 1). NIV is almost alone in giving the rulers name as Darius son of Xerxes, where the italicized word is the Greek for the name Ahasuerus. Both Xerxes (Greek) and Ahasuerus (Hebrew) are transliterations [spelling in another language] of a throne-name similar to Pharaoh or Caesar. In another 2500 years our word President will similarly need explanation.
Although the matter is disputed, we identify this ruler, Darius son of Ahasuerus (ESV), as Cyrus the Great, also known as Darius the Mede (Daniel 5:31) and Cyrus the Persian; Cyruss mother was Median and his father was Persian; because he was a great success, everyone claimed him! The first year of his reign was 539-538 B.C., at which time Daniel was likely more than eighty years old.
God keeps his word — all of his word
It is important to realize that the issues presented in Daniel 9 did not begin with Daniel or even with the deportation of Judah to Babylonian captivity. By studying the words given by Yahweh to Jeremiah the prophet, whose messages Daniel heard while living in Jerusalem, Daniel uncovers a fraction of the history leading to his peoples captivity in Babylon.
In verse 2, Daniel understands from Jeremiahs prophecies (Jeremiah 25:11-12) that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years. Other Scriptures, such as Dan. 9:11b and 9:13, inform us that the reason for this number 70 was that Gods people had failed to obey the Law of Moses. In particular, 2 Chronicles 36:20-21 relate the captivity years to sabbatical years (NET). What does that mean? To answer this question we must return to Mount Sinai where the exodus generation was being instructed how to behave in the land God had promised but not yet given to them, the land of Canaan.
At Sinai, Yahweh told Moses that the land itself must observe a sabbath to the Lord (Leviticus 25:2). Every seventh year in the land, the people could not sow their fields or prune their vines. They would live on the bounty granted in the previous year to let the land rest during the seventh year. Further, the people were required to count off seven sabbath years seven times seven years so that the seven sabbath years amount to forty-nine years (Lev. 25:8). That forty-ninth year was a sabbath year, and was followed by the Jubilee Year when slaves were freed, debts forgiven, and land returned to those who received it from Yahweh as their inheritance in Canaan.
Eventually, the people neglected these sabbath years and often failed to observe them. That was a grave mistake that brought severe consequences. As Harold Hoehner, a New Testament scholar and historian, puts it, Each year of captivity represented one seven-year cycle in which the seventh or Sabbath year had not been observed. Yahweh keeps track of everything going on with his people, and with everyone else as well.
In the first instance, those seventy ignored sabbath years determined the length of the captivity in Babylon and the desolation of Jerusalem. But that is not the full story! In Leviticus 26, Yahweh warns the people that if they ignore his blessings and disobey him, the result will be: I will punish you for your sins seven times over (Lev. 26:18). To reinforce the point, he repeats this seven-fold enhancement of punishment two more times (Lev. 26:21, 28). Yahweh also promises that the land will certainly gets its prescribed sabbath rest during their absence in the land of their enemies (Lev. 26:34-35)!
Now we do the math. Seventy years of punishment for missed sabbath years times an enhancement factor of seven yields 490 years (70 x 7 = 490). In his prayer Daniel expresses concern about relief at the end of seventy calendar years of captivity, but Gabriels answer spans all 490 years of additional punishment that is due because of the enhancement.
Here is a key idea for using the above information in the interpretation of chapter 9: Yahweh will apply those 490 years of punishment in whatever way pleases him. He is not bound by the common but misguided expectation that he will start the clock at 0 and let it run continuously to reach 490 years. Later we will learn how Yahweh will distribute the punishment.
Daniels prayer — A necessary confession of rebellion
Certainly Daniels prayer is profound and theologically significant. But, since God has already revealed that the captivity in Babylon would last seventy years, why does he think it necessary to pray for an end to Gods anger against his people? The answer lies in Lev. 26:40-42, verses that record Yahwehs promise to respond to the confession of sin and demonstration of humility by the people in Babylonian captivity. Perhaps it was Daniels earnest attention to these issues of confession and humility that satisfied what God had stated in Leviticus 26. In other words, Daniel carefully considered what Yahweh had said and acted accordingly.
ESV skillfully presents Daniels description of Yahweh: the great and awesome God, who keeps covenant and steadfast love with those who love him and keep his commandments (verse 4). Note the sequence covenant-love-love-commandments; this type of A-B-B-A structure is common in the Old Testament. Gods covenants usually include both blessing sections and cursing sections, corresponding to his peoples obedience or disobedience, respectively. People today are often drawn to emphasize Gods love and to downplay his commandments. That emphasis can put us just one step away from thinking that we can risk a little disobedience since God loves us. That is exactly how Gods people ignored many sabbath years and wound up in Babylon!
The Hebrew verbs in verse 4 are significant. The first verb (translated by prayed) stresses the function of intercession, in which Daniel takes on the role of advocacy on behalf of Gods people and his desolated holy place, including both the temple and Jerusalem. This is not a prayer about relative trivia; it addresses subjects worthy of attention from the ruler of heaven and earth. As believers, we too are worthy of his attention, a fact that is a result of his mercy and kindness.
The second verb (translated as confessed) stresses acknowledgement a fascinating, double-edged verb that, when it concerns Yahweh, amounts to praise, and, when it concerns Daniel and the people, amounts to confession. When we properly acknowledge God, we are praising him for who he is and what he does. When we acknowledge our own condition, we must confess that God is not finished with us, and — worse — that our hearts are sometimes in rebellion against him.
Verse 9b is stated a bit better by the ESV: O Lord, the great and awesome God, who keeps covenant and steadfast love with those who love him and keep his commandments. Note particularly the italicized portion. Yahweh always upholds his side of the relationship, and he always extends loyal love toward those who are loyal to him and obedient. The fact that the Jews suffer in Babylon is not the result of any failure on Yahwehs part to keep the covenant; their condition flows directly from their disloyal worship of idols and their failure to carry out their role under the covenant.
Verses 4-6 name many types of sin and make the point that Yahweh had repeatedly warned his people through the prophets, but they did not listen. Those who fail to listen to God are cruising toward the rocks.
Copyright 2015 Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from materials created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Used by permission.
 According to Goldingay, Daniel, 239, the name Ahasuerus is the Hebrew spelling of an Old Persian throne-name likely meaning hero among rulers.
 Harold Hoehner, Daniels Seventy Weeks and New Testament Chronology, Bibliotheca Sacra 132 (JanuaryMarch 1975) 49.