Exposition of Daniel 7:9-14 The final end of beast-like human kingdoms

Daniel 7:9-14

9 As I looked,

thrones were set in place,

and the Ancient of Days took his seat.

His clothing was as white as snow;

the hair of his head was white like wool.

His throne was flaming with fire,

and its wheels were all ablaze.

10 A river of fire was flowing,

coming out from before him.

Thousands upon thousands attended him;

ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him.

The court was seated,

and the books were opened.

11 Then I continued to watch because of the boastful words the horn was speaking. I kept looking until the beast was slain and its body destroyed and thrown into the blazing fire. 12 (The other beasts had been stripped of their authority, but were allowed to live for a period of time.)

13 In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. 14 He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all nations and peoples of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed.

Todays section of Daniel 7 must surely rank near the top of all revelations contained in Gods holy and infallible Word. In it we learn that final authority does not rest in the brutal competition for power among turbulent humanity; final authority comes from heaven and has been given to the son of man. The one whose dominion is everlasting is none other than Jesus the Messiah, the one who died for us and rose again to rule forever. This revelation further explains the meaning of the rock in Nebuchadnezzars dream (Daniel 2) that strikes the image and shatters all the kingdoms into dust that blows away. Each vision in the book adds to those which have gone before.

While the little horn shouts blasphemies, Daniel continues watching. What unfolds before him is nothing less than the final judgment of the beasts and the enthronement of the final ruler, the man from heaven. Having seen symbolic events about the earth, Daniel now sees symbolic events about heaven, the place where final decisions are made.

The vision Daniel describes in verses 9-14 does not overflow with elaborate details as it seeks to express a reality no man has ever seen. The Ancient of Days assumes the role of judge, seated on his throne (verse 9). That his judgment must be feared is symbolized by the fire that flows from his throne (verse 10a), not to mention the fact that his throne itself is flaming fire (verse 9). Wood explains the phrase the court was seated (verse 10b) by saying, This reads, literally, the judgment sat. This is simply to say that the situation was ready for the business at hand.[1]

But, the judgment rendered by the Ancient of Days is not whimsical; it is based on the deeds and words of each person, that is, on actual fact. (Rev. 20:12). That is the meaning of the phrase the books were opened (verse 10b). Miller adds: Of course, ones eternal destiny will be determined by whether ones name is written in the book of life (cf. Dan. 12:1; Rev. 20:12, 15). After this is established, the reward of the believer or the degree of punishment for the lost will be fixed by what is inscribed in the record books.[2]

In context, both Daniel and the vast throng before the throne wait to see the judgment executed upon the fourth beast, and particularly upon the little horn, who was still speaking boastful words (verse 11a). This beast of such terrifying power is slain and its body destroyed and thrown into the blazing fire (verse 11b). The ease with which the earths greatest and most evil empire is killed and eternally punished should send a chill down the spine of all who would oppose Yahweh and his anointed king (Psalms 2:2). For a time the Antichrist will raise his voice against God, but, at the appropriate time, that voice will be stilled in the lake of fire (Rev. 19:20).

The fate of the fourth beast has been revealed first because of its extreme significance. The revived Roman Empire, under the defiant rule of the Antichrist, brings opposition to God to the highest intensity in all human history. Daniel also speaks briefly about the other beasts in verse 12. Like the rising and falling waves in the sea-metaphor of verse 2, these three beasts (kingdoms) rose and fell in sequence, with the power and resources of one falling into the hands of the next. Wood explains, The empires prior to the [revived] Roman continued to exist in their respective successors, in that their people and culture were absorbed into them.[3]

The human kingdom Yahweh intended

As momentous as these events will be, it is ironic that Daniel has yet to recount his most important vision, the enthronement of the son of man and the establishment of his everlasting kingdom. Verses 13 and 14 are among the most important verses in the Bible. Here we find the phrase son of man, a title Jesus frequently applied to himself. One of the most telling instances occurs when Jesus was interrogated by the high priest before his crucifixion:

Again the high priest asked him, Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?

I am, said Jesus. And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven. (Mark 14:61-62)

The high priest understood these claims and their connection to Daniel 7; he immediately called this statement blasphemy and led the group in condemning Jesus to death (Mark 14:63-64).

Both Jewish and Christian interpreters have historically understood the phrase son of man (verse 13) to be a reference to the Messiah, but some have recently said that it is a reference to the archangel Michael or to the Jewish people. However, verse 14 makes it clear that the son of man is to be worshipped by all peoples, and the Bible consistently teaches that only God is to be worshipped (Rev. 19:10).[4] Old Testament scholar Joyce Baldwin rightly says, The son of man is not only king but God, though, as is characteristic of apocalyptic style, this is conveyed in veiled terms.[5] Further, when Jesus applied the term to himself, his claim was understood by the high priest to be an assertion that he was both Messiah and God.

We are told in verse 14: His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed. Against those who might claim this kingdom is merely spiritual, Miller says: All of the other kingdoms described in this chapter are real, earthly empires; and it is best to see this kingdom as real and earthly as well. … Though his rule on earth will last one thousand years (Rev. 20:4-6), Christs sovereignty will not end after the millennium but will continue throughout eternity.[6] The continuation will occur in the new heaven and new earth (Rev. 2122).

Copyright 2014 Barry Applewhite, Plano, Texas. All rights reserved worldwide. Derived from materials created for Christ Fellowship, McKinney, Texas. Use

[1] Leon J. Wood, A Commentary on Daniel (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 1998) 189.

[2] Stephen R. Miller, Daniel, The New American Commentary (Nashville: B&H Publishing, 1994) 205.

[3] Wood, Daniel, 191.

[4] Miller, Daniel, 208.

[5] Joyce Baldwin, Daniel, Tyndale Old Testament Commentary (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1978) 154.

[6] Miller, Daniel, 210.

Do you have an opinion or a different interpretation? Let me know!